Arrowhead – Sagittaria latifolia

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Arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia

Arrowhead Quick Facts
Name: Arrowhead
Scientific Name: Sagittaria latifolia
Origin Native to southern Canada
Colors White or bluish tubers
Shapes Thick round tubers that may grow as large as chicken eggs tuber 4-5 cm long.
Taste Similar to potatoes and chestnuts
Calories 78 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Phosphorus (28.14%)
Potassium (18.74%)
Vitamin B6 (15.85%)
Iron (15.13%)
Copper (15.00%)
Health benefits Prevents diabetes and regulates sugar level , Alzheimer's disease, Supports Lung and Respiratory Health, Pigmentation of Hair and Eyes, Fatigue, Helps Treat Anemia, Lower Risk of Heart Problems, Bone Formation
Arrowhead also known as duck-potato, broadleaf arrowhead, Indian potato, or wapato is widely grown aquatic perennial plant. Arrowhead scientifically known as Sagittaria latifolia belongs to genus Sagittaria L. of the Alismataceae family. It is considered to have originated from southern Canada. Apart from that it is known as Kewi in Arabia, Kuwai in Japan, Pilblad in Sweden, Kunai in china and Brutblatt in German. Arrowhead includes thicker round white or bluish tubers that is full of essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals.

Plant

Arrowhead is a vigorous, deciduous, marginal aquatic perennial plant sized 2 to 20 meters in length found growing in full or partial sun, shallow water up to 1′ deep or wet conditions. It normally prefers wet, fertile soil that contains few organic matters. Root system includes a tuft of coarse fibrous roots and long spreading stolons. No true stem are found since leaves are arranged in rosettes. Flower stem has spongy quality. Leaves are usually 8 inches wide and more than a foot long, Spongy and solid, have parallel venation, upper leaf surface is pale green, medium green, or yellowish green, while the lower leaf surface is pale green or yellowish green. Flowers have showy, white petals (1-2 cm) and are arranged in a whorled raceme. Three round white petals and three very short curved, dark green sepals. Male flowers are simply distinguished from female due to the difference between the 25 to 50 yellow stamens of the male as well as the sphere of green carpels of the female ones. Arrowhead flowers are found blooming from July to September.

Fruit

Fruits of Arrowhead are Globoid to sub-globoid (globoid, but somewhat flattened) in shape, consisting of a dense cluster of achenes that are 0.5 -1.5 cm long. It is usually green in color that changes to dark brown as soon as they mature.

Root

Roots are usually white and thin, creating white tubers covered along with a purplish skin at a good distance (0.3 to 1 m long, 0.15 to 0.6 meter deep) away from the mother plant. Roots are thick round bluish or white or tubers that grow as large as chicken eggs which are 4-5 cm long. It has taste which is similar to potatoes and chestnuts. Roots have long been a significant food source to ethnic peoples of the Americas. Tubers are separate from the ground by several methods:by feet, a pitchfork, or even a stick, and generally then float on the surface. Ripe tubers are easily collected during fall and are frequently found floating very freely.

History

Arrowhead is native to southern Canada and most of the touching United States, as well as Mexico, Ecuador, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia and Central America. It is also adapted in Bhutan, Hawaii, Australia Puerto Rico and much of Europe (Spain, the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Switzerland, Romania, Germany, and European Russia. Later it was spread throughout the world which have suitable environment for Arrowhead.

Nutritional Value

Apart from its taste which is similar to potatoes and chestnuts arrowhead is a good source of important nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Consuming 100 gram of Arrowroot consists of 197 mg of phosphorus, 881 mg of Potassium, 0.206 mg of Vitamin B6, 1.21 mg of Iron, 0.135 mg of Copper, 16.14 g of carbohydrate, 0.285 mg of Manganese, 0.144 mg of Vitamin B1 and 49 mg of Magnesium.

Nutritional value of Arrowhead
Serving Size: 1 Cup, 100 g

Calories 78 Kcal. Calories from Fat 0.9 Kcal.

Proximity Amount % DV
Water 77.08 g  N/D
Energy 78 Kcal  N/D
Energy 326 kJ  N/D
Protein 4.49 g 8.98%
Total Fat (lipid) 0.1 g 0.29%
Ash 2.19 g  N/D
Carbohydrate 16.14 g 12.42%
Total dietary Fiber 0.9 g 2.37%

Minerals Amount % DV
Phosphorus, P 197 mg 28.14%
Potassium, K 881 mg 18.74%
Iron, Fe 1.21 mg 15.13%
Copper, Cu 0.135 mg 15.00%
Manganese, Mn 0.285 mg 12.39%
Magnesium, Mg 49 mg 11.67%
Zinc, Zn 0.22 mg 2.00%
Sodium, Na 18 mg 1.20%
Selenium, Se 0.6 µg 1.09%
Calcium, Ca 7 mg 0.70%

Vitamins Amount % DV
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.206 mg 15.85%
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.144 mg 12.00%
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 0.449 mg 8.98%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 1.16 mg 7.25%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.06 mg 4.62%
Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic acid) 9 µg 2.25%
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 0.3 mg 0.33%

*Above mentioned Percent Daily Values (%DVs) are based on 2,000 calorie diet intake. Daily values (DVs) may be different depending upon your daily calorie needs. Mentioned values are recommended by a U.S. Department of Agriculture. They are not healthbenefitstimes.com recommendations. Calculations are based on average age of 19 to 50 years and weighs 194 lbs.

Health benefits of Arrowhead

Arrowhead also known as broad leaf arrowhead, duck potato, Indian potato, or wapato belongs to genus Sagittaria L. of the Alismataceae family. It full of nutrients like protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, minerals like iron, magnesium, calcium, copper, phosphorus and vitamins like Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, bitamin B3, vitamin C and many more.

1. Bone Formation

Phosphorus plays an important role in growth and maintenance of teeth and bones. Together with calcium it plays a vital role in making bones strong and helps to endure normal wear and tear of human life. Arrowhead has good quantity of phosphorus so consume arrowhead regularly to make our bones strong. Recent research also link the proper consumption of phosphorus rich foods with heart health, you will be able to protect yourself from several cardiovascular diseases too.  One cup cooked arrowhead tuber consists of 197 mg of phosphorus which is 28.14% of the daily recommended value.

2. Lower Risk of Heart Problems

Potassium is the third most plentiful mineral in human body and is a potent element in improving health. It includes the components for sustaining a high level of well-being and an improved lifestyle. Taking an adequate amount of Arrowhead will certainly help to lower the risk of developing heart problems like stroke and other heart related diseases since arrowroot consists of considerable amount of Potassium. It is essential to be conscious about your potassium level in case you already have heart disease.

Most of the potassium rich foods also include antioxidant and other minerals in considerable amount which will help your heart and result in overall wonderful health. Therefore include Arrowhead in your diet daily.

3. Helps Treat Anemia

Anemia is a disorder that develops when your blood lacks sufficient healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin. Vitamin B6 contained in Arrowhead is required to produce hemoglobin in the blood, that is transported by red blood cells throughout the body to help bring oxygen to cells and to mobilize iron. Arrowhead intake helps to lower symptoms of anemia as well as prevents it from occurring in future.

4. Fatigue

Fatigue is usually defined as a feeling of lack of energy and motivation which can be physical, mental or both. As we all know that iron deficiency is the main reason for fatigue since it is an important component of hemoglobin. Arrowhead is good source of Iron; therefore arrowhead intake is essential to eradicate different reasons of fatigue, which occur in both males and females. So, the inclusion of arrowhead in your diet keeps you fit and healthy.

5. Pigmentation of Hair and Eyes

Copper is the main element of the natural dark pigment melanin that imparts coloration to the skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin can be created by melanocytes in occurrence of the cuproenzyme namely tyrosinase, which is derived from copper. In this way consumption of copper rich food like arrowhead helps in defending against graying of the hair, it is often ignored as an antioxidant mineral; it protect the reliability of those cells and keeps you looking young! Regular consumption of copper rich foods helps to maintain color of eyesand along with zinc it helps to keep eyes beautifully colored in old age as well.

6. Supports Lung and Respiratory Health

Research recommends that consuming manganese rich foods along with minerals like selenium and zinc can help people suffering from lung disorders, like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxidative stress is supposed to be a main factor for smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory complaints; therefore manganese’s capability to help lower inflammation and oxidative stress through the production of SODs makes it helpful for those in necessity of lung healing.

7. Alzheimer’s disease

Research studies have shown that vitamin B1 is helpful to people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. This is due to the fact that vitamin B1 mimics a neurotransmitter which is crucial for memory. It is supposed that elder individuals along with memory problems may benefit by including vitamin B1 to their dietary intake. Vitamin B1 can be obtained by consuming Arrowhead since one cup of cooked arrowhead consists of 0.144 mg of Vitamin B1 which is 12.00% of the recommended value. Therefore include arrowhead in your diet to remain safe from Alzheimer’s disease in your old age.

8. Prevents diabetes and regulates sugar level 

Magnesium helps to regulate the insulin reaction to blood sugar levels. Proper magnesium supplementation is essential for diabetic patients as many of them undergo magnesium deficiency. Magnesium contained in arrowhead helps to regulate blood sugar status, therefore encouraging normal blood pressure.

Apart from that it is also found that hypertension is caused due to magnesium deficiency. Therefore it is important to include extra nutrients and minerals supplements along with magnewsium so as to avaid all kinds of medical complications.

How to Eat

  • Tubers can be dried and ground into a powder, this powder can be used as gruel or combined with cereal flours and used to make bread.
  • American Indians slice the boiled roots into thin sections and then string them on ropes to dry in much the same way as apples.
  • Root raw or cooked, excellent when roasted, the texture is slightly like potatoes with a taste like sweet chestnuts.
  •  Arrowhead tubers were high valued food sources for Ojibwa and other tribes .

Other Traditional uses and benefits of Arrowhead

  • Poultice of the leaves is used to stop milk production.
  • Tea made from the roots is used as a digestive.
  • Poultice of the roots is used for the treatment of wounds and sores.
  • Navajo used the arrowhead plant to treat headaches.
  • Ojibwa consume the corms (tubers) for indigestion.
  • Algonquin of Quebec used the root to treat tuberculosis.

Arrowhead Facts

Arrowhead is a thick round white or bluish tubers that grow as large as chicken eggs. Its taste is similar to potatoes and chestnuts and is fulfill with important nutrients, mineral and vitamins.

Name Arrowhead
Scientific Name Sagittaria latifolia
Native Native to southern Canada
Common/English Name duck-potato, broadleaf arrowhead, Indian potato, or wapato
Name in Other Languages Chinese : T’zu-Ku, Bai-Di-Li
Welsh : Saethlys, Saethlys Saethffeilaidd
Japanese : Kuwai, Konwai Shiro-Guwai,
Thailand : Kha Khiat, Taokiat, Phakkhangkai
Cuba : Malanga China
Khmer : Slok Lumpaeng
Polish : Strzałka Wodna
Danish : Almindelig Pilblad
Swedish : Pilblad
Korean : Soeguenamul, Soegwinamul
Hungarian : Nyílfű
Malaysia : Ètjèng, Keladi Ubi
India : Jathipotia ( Assamese), Koukha ( Bengali)
Russian : Strelolist Trekhlistnistnyi, Strelolist
Gaelic : Rinn Saighde
Slovencina : Šípovka Vodná
Eastonia : Jõgi-Kõõlusleht
Spanish : Flecha Chinesa, Flecha De Agua, Saeta,
German : Brutblatt, Chinesisches Pfeilkraut,
Indonesia :  Eceng Genjer, Kalopak
Italian : Erba Saetta Chinese,
Arabia : Kewi
Esperanto : Akvosago, Sagherbo Granda
Slovašcina : Streluša Navadna
Dutch : Pijlkruid
Portuguese : Erva Frecha Chinesa, Espadana
Finnish : Pystykeiholehti, Yleinen Keiholehti
Laotian : Phak Sob
Norwegian : Pilblad
Philippines : Gauai-Gauai ( Bisaya )
Czech : Šípatka Střelolistá, Šípatka Střelovitá
French : Fléchière Commune, Fle D’eau, Flèche D’eau
Polish : Strzałka Wodna
Vietnamese : Rau Mac, Tu Coo, Cu Choc
Plant Growth Habit Vigorous, deciduous, marginal aquatic perennial
Growing Climate Full or partial sun, shallow water up to 1′ deep or wet conditions
Soil Prefers wet, fertile soil containing some organic matter.
Plant Size 2 to 20 meters in length
Root Root system consists of a tuft of coarse fibrous roots and long spreading stolons.
Stem No true stem since leaves arranged in rosettes. Flower stem has spongy quality
Leaf 8 inches wide and more than a foot long ,Spongy and solid, the leaves have parallel venation, upper leaf surface is pale green, medium green, or yellowish green, while the lower leaf surface is pale green or yellowish green
Flowering Season July to September
Flower Flowers have showy, white petals (1-2 cm) and are arranged in a whorled raceme.
Fruit shape & size Clustered, winged achenes that are oblong, flattened, with sharp beak, 0.5 -1.5 cm long
Fruit color Changing in color from green to dark brown as they mature.
Tuber Shape & Size Thick round tubers that may grow as large as chicken eggs tuber 4-5 cm long.
TuberColor white or bluish tubers
Tuber Taste Similar to potatoes and chestnuts
Major Nutrition Phosphorus, P 197 mg (28.14%)
Potassium, K 881 mg (18.74%)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.206 mg (15.85%)
Iron, Fe 1.21 mg (15.13%)
Copper, Cu 0.135 mg (15.00%)
Carbohydrate 16.14 g (12.42%)
Manganese, Mn 0.285 mg (12.39%)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.144 mg (12.00%)
Magnesium, Mg 49 mg (11.67%)
Health Benefits
  • Prevents diabetes and regulates sugar level
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Supports Lung and Respiratory Health
  • Pigmentation of Hair and Eyes
  • Fatigue
  • Helps Treat Anemia
  • Lower Risk of Heart Problems
  • Bone Formation
Calories in 1cup (145gm) 78 Kcal

Arrowhead(Sagittaria latifolia) Scientific Classification

Scientific name Sagittaria latifolia
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Order Alismatales
Family Alismataceae
Genus Sagittaria L.
Species Sagittaria latifolia Willd.
Super division Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Sub Class Alismatidae

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagittaria_latifolia

https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=sala2

http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Sagittaria+latifolia

https://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/sagittaria-latifolia/

http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/wetland/plants/cm_arrowhead.htm

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=275651&isprofile=0&

http://www.survivalplantsmemorycourse.com/2012/12/sagittaria-latifolia-common-arrowhead-rabbits-head/

http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/plantid2/descriptions/sag.html

http://www.aihd.ku.edu/foods/arrowhead.html 

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