Fennel Facts

Fennel is a glabrous, much-branched, biennial herb with a thick, spindle-shaped taproot that produces a pithy, smooth or finely-fluted round stem that may reach to 6 ft. (1.8 m) in height. It is a member of the Apiaceae (parsley family) and is related to carrots, caraway, anise, cumin, dill, etc.  Since it is a versatile vegetable, it plays an important role in the food culture of many European nations, especially in France and Italy. Leaves, bulb and seed are edible part of fennel. Leaves and seed are consumed as seasoning. Bulb is used as vegetable. Nowadays it is cultivated throughout the world due to its licorice-like flavor and the myriad of health benefits.

Name Fennel
Scientific Name Foeniculum vulgare
Native Mediterranean region
Common/English Name Aniseed Weed, Bitter Fennel, Bronze Fennel, Common Fennel, False Dill, Fennel, Finnochio, French Fennel, Green and Bronze Fennel, Garden Fennel, Roman Fennel, Sweet Cumin, Sweet Fennel, Wild Fennel.
Name in Other Languages Japanese : Fenneru
Turkey : Arapsaçı
Georgian : Kama
Armenian: Samit
Esperanto : Fenkolo
Basque : Mehul
Portuguese : Erva-Doce
Hungarian : Bécsi Fű
Bulgaria : Morach
Korean: Hoe-Hyang
Catalan : Fonoll
Slovašcina : Komarček Navadni
Polish : Fenku
Croatian : Komorač
Russian: Fenchel´ Obyknovennyj
Laos : Phak Si
Spanish : Hinojo
Danish : Almindelig Fennikel
Azerbaijani : Разјана
Dutch : Knolvenkel
Romanian : Anason Dulce
Farsi : Razianeh
Thai : Pak Chi Duanha
Malaysia : Adas
Finnish: Fenikeli
Galician : Fiuncho
Swedish: Besk Fänkål
Ukrainian : Fenḫel’ Zvičajnij
Arabic: Badyan
Persian : Razýanh
German : Brotsamen
Sri Lanka : Maduri
Greek : Finókio
Brazil : Erva-Doce
Tibetan : Ma Tog Brgya Pa
Hebrew : Shumar
Welsh : Ffennigl
Icelandic : Fennika
Norwegian : Fenikkel
Indonesia: Das Spicy ( Aceh )
Slovencina : Fenikel
Portuguese : Funcho
Burmese : Samong-Saba
Latvian : Fenhelis
French : Anet
Lithuanian: Paprastasis Pankolis
Czech : Fenýkl Obecný
Maltese : Bużbież
Vietnam : Cay Thi La
Nepalese : Madesi Sauf
Swahili : Tamari
India : Sap Guti ( Assamese )
Russian : Fenchel’ Obyknovennyj
Pakistan : Barisaunf
Chinese : Hui Xiang
Provencal: Fenoun
Italian : Finocchio
Scottish Gaelic : Lus An T’saiodh
Irish : Finéal
Philippines : Anis
Albanian : Kopër
Plant Growth Habit Erect, aromatic, glabrous, much-branched, biennial herb
Growing Climate Thrives in full sun
Soil Well-drained, light, moderately fertile soils, especially in sandy loams nut needs supplemental watering during the dry seasons
Plant Size 2 m high
Root Thick, spindle-shaped taproot
Bulb Shape & Size Swollen, bulb-like structure, measures about 3-5 inches in width and about 3 inches in length
Bulb Color White or pale green
Bulb Flavor Delicate, sweet
Stem Erect, robust, glabrous stem filled with white spongy pith and are bluish-grey colored.
Leaf Basal and cauline leaves up to 15 cm, broadly triangular-ovate in outline; ultimate segments 5–40 × 0.5 mm; petiole 7–14 cm.

Upper leaves alternate, 2–4 × pinnately divided ultimate segments filiform, 1–6 × 0. 6 mm, petiole broadly sheathing at base

Flower Pale yellow, tiny, 2 mm across, in compound umbels, 4–10 cm across; bracts and  bracteoles absent,
Seed Shape & Size Ovoid-oblong to oblong  or curved (comma) shape  schizocarpic, of mericarps ,non- fleshy, 4–10 mm long by 1.5–2 mm wide
Seed Color Light-brown
Seed Flavor/aroma Pleasant sweet anise or licorice flavor
Seed taste Sweet
Season July to September.
Major Nutrition bulb Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 54.6 µg (45.50%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 10.4 mg (11.56%)
Iron, Fe 0.64 mg (8.00%)
Potassium, K 360 mg (7.66%)
Manganese, Mn 0.166 mg (7.22%)
Total dietary Fiber 2.7 g (7.11%)
Copper, Cu 0.057 mg (6.33%)
Phosphorus, P 44 mg (6.29%)
Vitamin A, RAE 42 µg (6.00%)
Vitamin B9 (Folate) 23 µg (5.75%)
Major Nutrition seeds Manganese, Mn 6.533 mg (284.04%)
Iron, Fe 18.54 mg (231.75%)
Calcium, Ca 1196 mg (119.60%)
Copper, Cu 1.067 mg (118.56%)
Total dietary Fiber 39.8 g (104.74%)
Magnesium, Mg 385 mg (91.67%)
Phosphorus, P 487 mg (69.57%)
Tryptophan 0.253 g (57.50%)
Valine 0.915 g (43.32%)
Total Fat (lipid) 14.87 g (42.49%)
Isoleucine 0.695 g (41.57%)
Carbohydrate 52.29 g (40.22%)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 6.05 mg (37.81%)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.47 mg (36.15%)
Potassium, K 1694 mg (36.04%)
Threonine 0.602 g (34.20%)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.408 mg (34.00%)
Zinc, Zn 3.7 mg (33.64%)
Protein 15.8 g 31.60%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.353 mg (27.15%)
Leucine 0.996 g (26.95%)
Histidine 0.331 g (26.87%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 21 mg (23.33%)
Lysine 0.758 g (22.67%)
Health Benefits of Bulb
  • Pregnancy and Birth Defects
  • Weakness
  • Arthritis
  • Eye Health
  • Supports Lung and Respiratory Health
  • Heart Disease
  • Lowers Blood Pressure
  • Anemia
  • Immune System
  • Bone Health
Health Benefits of Seeds
  • Eye Health
  • Respiratory Disorders
  • Menstrual Disorders
  • Brain Function
  • Great for Acne
  • Improves Colic
  • Helps Prevent Cancer
  • Breast Enlargement
  • Good for Constipation Indigestion, IBS & Bloating,
  • Helps Regulate Blood Pressure
  • Constipation
Calories in 1cup bulb(87gm) 27 Kcal
Calories in 1cup seeds(100gm) 345 Kcal