Kumquats facts and health benefits

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Kumquats facts and health benefits

Kumquats Quick Facts
Name: Kumquats
Scientific Name: Fortunella japonica
Origin Southern China
Colors Green when young and turns to glossy golden orange to orangey-yellow
Shapes Globose to slightly oblate, or sub globose, 2.0–2.7 cm diameter
Taste Sweet and sour
Calories 13 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Vitamin C (9.22%)
Total dietary Fiber (3.16%)
Carbohydrate (2.32%)
Iron (2.00%)
Copper (2.00%)
Health benefits Build Strong Bones, Digestive Health, Skin Health, Protect from Cancer, Immune System, Hair and Teeth, Vision Booster, Treats Cold, Weight Loss Booster, Energy Booster, Diabetes, Reduces the Development of Kidney Stones
More facts about Kumquats
Kumquats scientifically known as Fortunella japonica belong to the Rutaceae family, in the genus, Fortunella, and named so after the botanist Robert fortune, who brought them from China to Europe in the middle of the 19th century. They have been referred to as “the little gems of the citrus family”. Kumquats’ are also known as ‘cumquats’, and the name is taken from the Cantonese word 金橘, pronounced ‘kamkwat’, which exactly means ‘gold’ or ‘golden’ and ‘orange’ or ‘tangerine’. The plant is native to southern China and Golden Orange, Marumi Kumquat, Morgani Kumquat, Round Kumquat, Sweet-Peeled Kumquat are few of the popular common names of Kumquats. Apart from that Hong Kong or Hong Kong Wild, Marumi or Round Kumquat, Meiwa or Large Round Kumquat and Nagami or Oval, Kumquat are well known varieties of Kumquats that are grown throughout the world because of its higher nutritional value and unique wonderful taste.

Plant

Kumquats is a small evergreen, sparingly armed tree, 2.5 to 4.5 meters (8 to 15 ft.) tall with a compact crown and angular green branches when young, thorn less or with a few spines. They are found growing in hot climate and normally prefer moist soil that is rich in organic matters. Leaves are oval to broadly elliptic, 6–7.5 cm by 3–4.5 cm, medium green, simple, with acute to sub-acute apex, tapering obtuse base, entire to sub crenulate margin and borne on inconspicuously winged 6–11 mm petioles. Flowers are Solitary, or paired and axillary, white, bisexual; sepals green glabrous, 5 toothed; petals 5 white, oblong. Although a lot of kumquat trees are generally cultivated because of their fairly sweet, delicious fruits, also, they are utilized as decorative plants because of the desirable, gleaming leaves and delicate white flowers that blossom during the summer time. Additionally reduce twigs of the kumquat tree are used in most regions as Christmas time decorations. As a result of variety of the use, kumquat trees are increasingly becoming popular to cultivate in the home.

Fruit

Kumquats are actually a tiny, citrus fruits. They are normally globose to slightly oblate, or sub globose, which is 2.0–2.7 cm in diameter. Fruits are normally green when young and turn to glossy golden orange to orangey-yellow when mature. The fruit includes a fairly sweet, thin, fragrant external skin along with a sour internal flesh that contains 4–6 pulpy, juicy, orange segments. Although kumquats taste just like that of other citrus category fruits, they are distinguished in a way that they can be eaten wholly including the peel, but some people love consuming just the skin. The fruit consists of 1–3 small pointed seeds or some of them are even seedless. Due to its sweet and sour flavor it has been used in several food items since ancient times.

History

Kumquats are supposed to have originated from southern China. They were described in Chinese literature in 1178 A.D. A European writer in 1646 mentioned the fruit as having been described to him by a Portuguese missionary who had labored 22 years in China. In 1712, kumquats were included in a list of plants cultivated in Japan. They have been grown in Europe and North America since the mid-19th Century, mostly as ornamental dooryard trees and as potted specimens in patios and greenhouses. They are grown mainly in California, Florida and Texas; to a lesser extent in Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Surinam, Colombia and Brazil. In South India, they can be grown only at high elevations. There is limited cultivation in Australia and South Africa. Nowadays it is grown in China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Europe, southern United States (notably Florida and California), Australia and elsewhere.

Nutritional Value

Apart from their sweet and sour taste, kumquat is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Consuming 19gram of kumquats offers 8.3 mg of Vitamin C, 1.2 g of Total dietary Fiber, 3.02 g of Carbohydrate, 0.16 mg of Iron, 0.018 mg of Copper, 0.017 mg of Vitamin B2, 12 mg of Calcium, 0.026 mg of Manganese and 4 mg of Magnesium.

Health benefits of Kumquats

Kumquats are commonly a tiny, oblong citrus fruits which is rich in vitamin c and dietary fiber and is essential to perform activities within our body. Together with some other minerals and vitamins, the kumquat consists of moderate quantities of vitamin A, as well as B2 (riboflavin), and also manganese which are essential for our body. Listed below are some popular benefits of consuming kumquats on a regular basis

1. Build Strong Bones

The significant calcium content in kumquats means that they help to protect bones over the long term. High calcium levels means that you have more calcium deposits in your body, increasing the rate of healing and confirming that your bones stay healthy and strong well into your older ages.(1)

2. Digestive Health

Kumquats play an important role in regulating the digestive health of those wise enough to eat some of these each week. 8 kumquats are equal to 10 grams of fiber, and consuming a handful of kumquats isn’t very hard to do! Fiber present in kumquats helps to keep the gastrointestinal tract moving and regulates digestion to a healthy level. It helps to eliminate constipation, excess gas, bloating, and cramping, while also increasing the efficiency of your nutrient uptake.

3. Skin Health

Kumquats consists of sufficient amount of antioxidants and vitamins which make them ideal to protect the skin, not only from cancerous effects of the sun, but also to heal the negative effects of free radicals, which can cause wrinkles, age spots, and rough, unhealthy skin. Kumquats, like many citrus fruits, have a serious effect on the appearance and feel of your body’s largest organ.(2)

4. Protect from Cancer

Kumquat contains a high amount of antioxidants like Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Vitamin E and good amount of phytonutrients flavonoids like carotene, tannin, zeaxanthin, pectin, etc. Antioxidants and phytonutrients jointly help to protect the body from oxygen free radicals.

Free radicals are produced due to oxidative stress. These free radicals damage DNA of the cell and turn the healthy cell into a cancer cell. But antioxidants help to neutralize these free radicals and acts as a protection to defend DNA from free radicals. Therefore, it is effective to protect from cancer.

5. Immune System

Kumquats control the immune system in a number of different ways, since they are rich in Vitamin C, just like their larger cousins, oranges! Vitamin C is a very important nutrient in our diet, mostly because it has an effect on everything in our body. It helps to encourage the growth of new cells and increases the activity of the immune system to keep our body protected from foreign invaders, infections, bacteria, and fungi. Without vitamin C, we would be unable to protect and heal ourselves.(3)

6. Hair and Teeth

While most people might not think about the connection between citrus fruits and your hair, vitamin C, natural organic compounds, antioxidants, and minerals have a major effect on the quality, texture, oiliness, and strength of your hair. The same goes for your teeth, but luckily, kumquats are packed with some of the best nutrients for hair and teeth, like calcium, potassium, and Vitamin C which help to make them strong and powerful.

7. Diabetes

Aside from their beneficial effect on digestion, fiber present in kumquats plays an important role in preventing diabetes. Dietary fiber help to optimize insulin and glucose balance in the body, thus preventing people from developing this awful, incurable disease.(4)

8. Vision Booster

Kumquats are a rich source of Vitamin A and beta carotene, which are closely associated with eye health and ability. Beta carotene works as an antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress in the macular cells, thus limiting macular degeneration and reducing the development of cataracts.(5)

9. Treats Cold

Consuming kumquat fruits can give you relief from cold, flu as well as other infections because of the vitamin C that increase your immunity. The natural decongestive action of this kumquat fruit will even calm sore throat too.

10. Weight Loss Booster

Kumquats consists of high fiber content, high water content, low calories, and significant carb content which make it ideal for people trying to lose weight. They will fill you up and keep you healthy, which will decrease your urge to overeat.(6)

11. Energy Booster

This small, unassuming fruit consists of huge amount of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, despite their recent bad name and the many “No Carb” diets out there, are essential for our bodies, particularly if we are highly active people and need to refill our energy reserves in a simple way. Kumquats can provide that burst of energy in our diets, while also giving us all the other benefits too! The high level of riboflavin, a key vitamin involved in the production of energy, makes this process even easier.(7)

12. Reduces the Development of Kidney Stones

Kumquats consist of high concentration of citric acid which helps to keep your kidneys healthy by stopping the stones from forming in the kidneys.

Other health benefits

  • Enhances gums overall health
  • Enhances Defense mechanisms
  • Enhances Iron absorption
  • Increases Lung health
  • Protects from regular infections
  • Decreases Inflammations
  • Safeguards blood through over-clotting
  • Decreases Cholesterol levels
  • Minimizes lipids
  • Reduces Chance of atherosclerosis
  • Decreases Likelihood of weight problems
  • Helps prevent depressive disorders
  • Safeguards from coronary disease
  • Assists protect from type 2 diabetes
  • Decreases exhaustion
  • Fortifies hair
  • Fortifies nails
  • Enhances concentration capability
  • Minimizes joint pain

Types of Kumquat

The different kumquats are usually recognized as organic varieties instead of as cultivars. Listed below are those most used for food:

1. ‘Hong Kong’ or Hong Kong Wild

Hong Kong Kumquat technological title is F. Hindsii Swing which is also known as chin chü; Shan chin Kan, as well as chin tou from the Chinese-native to Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Kumquat is tiny, with regards to the dimensions of a pea. In addition, it’s a sluggish grower, and is also very resistant of container culture, that makes it an excellent matter for bonsai farmers.

The Hong Kong kumquat has got white-colored perfumed flowers. Foliage is evergreen, shiny as well as deep-green. Fruits of the Hong Kong kumquat are tiny as well as globose, with the size a pea. They may be orange whenever ripe. The fruit is delicious, even though really small.

Chinese people group towards the foothills to collect the fruits in season. Under western culture, the very thorny shrub is cultivated simply just as one decorative pot plant.

2. ‘Marumi’, or Round Kumquat

Marumi Kumquat medical title is F. japonica Swing also referred to as Citrus maduremis Lour.

This particular fresh fruit is spherical, somewhat oblate or even obviate 1 1/4 in (3.2 cm) lengthy. The color of the peel is golden-yellow which can be smooth, along with big oil glands, thin, fragrant as well as spicy. Its pulp has got 4 to 7 sections that is short as well as citrus with 1 to 3 seeds that are small compared to the ones from ‘Nagami’.

This particular fruit was completely explained the very first time in 1784. It absolutely was launched into Florida from Japan simply by Glen St. Mary as well as Royal Palm nurseries in 1885.

The tree actually reaches 9 ft. (2.75 m); is normally much like that of ‘Nagami’ with the exception that it is somewhat thorny, has got relatively smaller sized leaves and is also significantly more cold-tolerant; bears in the exact same season.

3. ‘Meiwa’ or Large Round Kumquat

Big Spherical Kumquat clinical title is F. crass folia Swing also is known as ninpo or even neiha kinkan within Japan-possibly a crossbreed in between ‘Nagami’ as well as ‘Marumi’.

This particular fresh fruit is short-oblong to spherical, about 1 1/2 in (4 cm) broad. Its peel is extremely thicker as well as fairly sweet whose color is orange-yellow. Its pulp is frequently in 7 sections that is fairly sweet or even subs acid. It is usually seedless or even consists of couple of seeds.

The tree is actually a dwarf, often thorn less or even having small, strong spines. Its leaves vary from the ones from some other kumquats in becoming extremely thicker as well as firm as well as partially collapsed lengthwise. They’re pitted with plenty of dark-green oil glands.

It was presented from Japan by the United States Department of Agriculture in between 1910 as well as 1912. They’re broadly, cultivated in Chekiang Province, China, and much less generally in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. There’s an attractive type along with variegated fruits in Japan. This particular kumquat is perfect for consuming fresh, yet still is fairly uncommon in the United States of America.

4.  ‘Nagami’, or Oval, Kumquat

Nagami, or even Oval, Kumquat medical title is F. margarita Swing. Nagami are usually obviated or even oblong that is 1 3/4 in (4.5 cm) lengthy as well as 1 3/16 in (3 cm) broad. Its pulp is split into 4 or 5 sections that contain 2 to 5 seeds. It really is grown in season October to January.

This particular plant launched from China into London in 1846 simply by Robert Fortune. This particular plant explorer for the Royal Horticultural Society. It absolutely was reported in North America in 1850. It absolutely was launched into Florida from Japan simply by Glen St. Mary as well as Royal Palm nurseries in 1885.

Its tree is actually 15 ft. (4.5 m) taller. An adult sample on rough lemon rootstock at Oneco, Florida, in 1901, bore a crop of 3,000 to 3,500 fruits. This is actually the usually grown kumquat in the United States of America.

How to store Kumquat

In contrast to each and every citrus range, you consume the whole fruit, skin and all. Additionally, the sweet part may be the peel, whereas the pulp is incredibly sour (or perhaps sour enough that the peel seems sweet in comparison). By consuming a kumquat, you can find yourself nibbling, squirrel-like, round the outside of the fruit, removing the center. That isn’t required with the Meiwa variety. Its pulp is significantly nicer as compared to the majority of kumquats.

Because of this, the variety has been regarded as the very best for eating out of hand. (An alternative title is definitely the Sweet Kinkan, which in turn may sound like something away from “The Mikado.”) You are able to spot Meiwas since they’re almost round and many other commercially accessible kumquats are oblong.

  • Kumquats might be saved at room temperature; to increase life expectancy, refrigerate.
  • To freeze kumquats:
  • Clean and then leave entire, or even slice the fruit and take away seeds lightly
  • Within a saucepan, mix 2 3/4 cups sugar as well as 4 cups water, combine up until the solution is apparent, and provide to a boil
  • Cool the syrup as well as pour over kumquats
  • Put kumquats as well as syrup in protected air-tight pots or even heavy-duty freezer bags.
  • Freezer time revealed is for highest quality only – foods stored continuously frozen at 0° F could keep safe forever.

Ways to eat Kumquat

Kumquats, with respect to the varieties, look like small round or even oval oranges, about an inch to 2 inches in total length. These types of fruits are a fantastic method to obtain vitamins A and C, in addition to fiber. Kumquats have a wide range of cooking uses. They might be candied or even pickled, utilized in kabobs, converted to jellies, marmalade as well as chutney, or even utilized just as one component in cakes as well as pies. They will add color as well as taste whenever sliced, in salads or even like a garnish for possibly hot or even iced tea. Their particular tastes mix effectively together with chicken, pork, duck, lamb, fish as well as sea food. They might be utilized to taste liquors as well as, with leaves linked, are spectacular like a garnish for martinis.

Eat Kumquats Out of Hand

Kumquats are excellent, just like they are – peel and all. The peel is really a little bit more gratifying as opposed to pulp, therefore consuming them complete (spit out the seeds if you would like, however they are delicious as well) provides them a well-balanced taste.

Add Kumquats to a Green Salad

The bitter tang of kumquats is effective with lots of the greens obtainable in winter season – particularly endive as well as spinach, as with an Endive Kumquat Salad. Cut in half, chop, or even very finely slice the kumquats just before including them to the salad.

Toss Kumquats in a Fruit Salad

Kumquats – cut in half or even sliced – give a tangy sweet taste to fruit salads. They may be additional scrumptious along with kiwis (also a winter fruit).

Preserve Kumquats

These types of Honeyed Kumquats (pictured) are usually delicious as well as outside of scrumptious spooned on ice cream, simple natural yogurt, or perhaps a dish of ricotta cheese.

Make Kumquat Chutney

Slice kumquats as well as cook all of them with a little bit of chopped garlic, recently grated ginger, as well as honey or even brown sugar to flavor up until the combination thicken a bit. Offer along with fish, chicken, or even pork.

Cook up Kumquat Marmalade

This particular kumquat-orange marmalade from Eastern European meals are ideal for putting on toast.

How to Eat

  • Ripe Marumi kumquat is consumed whole as its rind is extremely sweet, fragrant and pleasant.
  • Fruit is popularly savored as fresh fruit in Korea and Japan.
  • Fruits are easily preserved whole in sugar syrup and bottled or canned.
  • Fruits can also be pickled in jars of water, vinegar, and salt sealed and allowed to stand for 2–3 months or made into sweet pickled by boiling in syrup, vinegar and sugar.
  • Kumquats can also be made into marmalade or jelly.
  • Add fresh kumquat slices to fruit salads or fruit bowls.
  • Kumquats can be attractive garnish on a platter.
  • Kumquats make excellent marmalade, preserves and candied. This is because unlike other citrus fruits like Seville-orange, which has bitter tasting peel, kumquats rind is very sweet and, therefore, desirable.
  • Additionally, pureed kumquats are much sought-after in the preparation of sauce, fruit-concentrates, jams, and jellies.
  • They also can be used in the preparation of juice, cakes, pie, ice creams…etc.
  • Ripe kumquat fruit is used as marinade and as a garnish in poultry, lamb, and sea-food dishes.

Other traditional uses and benefits of Kumquats

  • Plant is viewed as antiphlogistic, antivinous, carminative, deodorant and stimulant.
  • Fresh fruit is antitussive and expectorant; in Vietnam, it is steamed with sugar candy and used in the treatment of sore throats.
  • It is said to be good for infants.

Other Facts

  • Marumi kumquat is grown as an ornamental plant in the garden, parks and as ornamental house plant in patios and terraces and can be used in bonsai.
  • This plant symbolizes good luck in China, Japan and Korea and other Southeast Asian countries, where it is occasionally given as a gift during the Lunar New Year.

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumquat

https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/kumquat.html

http://www.foodreference.com/html/fkumquat.html

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