Milkfish facts

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Milkfish facts

Milkfish Quick Facts
Name: Milkfish
Scientific Name: Chanos chanos
Origin Philippines and spread in Indonesia, Taiwan, and into the Pacific
Colors Silvery on the belly and sides, grading to olive green or blue on the back and dark bordered fins.
Shapes 1.80 m (5 ft. 11 in), smooth, elongate and almost compressed body, with a generally symmetrical and streamlined appearance,
Flesh colors White
Calories 162 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Vitamin B-12 (115.83%)
Isoleucine (61.66%)
Lysine (61.42%)
Tryptophan (57.05%)
Threonine (55.74%)
Health benefits Rich in Omega 3 fatty acids, Good Source of Protein
Milkfish (Chanos chanos) also known as bandeng or bangos is the sole living species in the family Chanidae. It is a silver colored Pacific salt water fish that lays its eggs in shallow coastal waters and can withstands low salinity water. It is a popular fish in Southeast Asia and lives in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and to live as a group around the edges of islands and coral islands. Young fish commonly live for 2-3 weeks at sea and then move to the mangrove swamp with salt water, occasionally to a watery salty lake. Milkfish will go back into the ocean when mature and can breed again. It is a source of animal protein, B-complex vitamins and selenium, but it is also a significant source of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and calories.

Physical Description

Milkfish can grow to a maximum length of 1.8 meters, but most of the time, it is about 1 meter in length. They can reach a weight of about 14.0 kg. and an average age of 15 years. Its body is generally symmetrical (balanced) and is streamlined, with 2 dorsal spines and 13-17 soft-ray-fins. It also has 2 anal spines, 8-10 anal soft rays, and 46 vertebrae. Body looks somewhat compressed, and it has a small mouth without teeth. It has 4 branchiostegal rays (long, curved bones just below the operculum- gill cover), one dorsal fin, and falcate pectoral fins (which are sickle-shaped fins situated just behind the head and help control the direction of movement). Its body color is olive green, with silvery scales, and dark-colored fins. Internally, the milkfish is composed of whitish colored flesh along with many tiny bones.

Habitat

Milkfish are usually found along the coasts of continents or islands, particularly where reefs are well developed. They also occur in large coastal lagoons. Milkfish are found in tropical waters, rarely in waters that are affected by cold ocean currents. They are found in clear, shallow, saline, and warm waters above 20°C. Adult milkfish also occur in freshwater lakes in the Philippines, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Juveniles are found in large coastal lagoons, atolls, and freshwater lakes. The depth range of the milkfish is 0 to 30 m.

Food

Milkfish is overall herbivorous, because it does not have any teeth. It nibbles on small plankton, algae, diatoms, and plants. It also often enters into shallow areas to find food, and occasionally eats small invertebrates or fish, while it tries to nibble on algae, and plants.  When this fish is farmed in the fish pen, due to the lack of food, it starts eating the eggs and the larvae that are in the fish pen.

History

Milkfish aquaculture first occurred around 800 years ago in the Philippines and spread in Indonesia, Taiwan, and into the Pacific. Traditional milkfish aquaculture relied upon restocking ponds by collecting wild fry. This led to a wide range of variability in quality and quantity between seasons and regions.

In the late 1970s, farmers first successfully spawned breeding fish. However, they were hard to obtain and produced unreliable egg viability. In 1980, the first spontaneous spawning happened in sea cages. These eggs were found to be sufficient to generate a constant supply for farms.

In 2007, milkfish made up 17% of global finfish production behind only the 40% share accounted for by Atlantic salmon.  The Philippines and Indonesia account for the vast majority of production.  In 2009, Philippine milkfish production contributed to 14.03% of Philippine aquaculture production behind seaweed (70.23%) and ahead of tilapia (10.53%).

Nutritional Value

Apart from their mild flavor, milkfish is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Consuming 85 gram of milkfish offers 2.78 µg of Vitamin B-12, 22.37 g of Protein, 7.018 mg of Vitamin B3, 0.415 mg of Vitamin B6, 177 mg of Phosphorus, 13.8 µg of Selenium, 7.34 g of Total Fat and 0.735 mg of Vitamin B5. Moreover many Amino acids 0.251 g of Tryptophan, 0.981 g of Threonine, 1.031 g of Isoleucine, 1.818 g of Leucine, 2.054 g of Lysine, 0.662 g of Methionine and 0.24 g of Cystine are also found in 85 gram of milkfish.

Health benefits of Milk Fish

Milk Fish is one of the healthy and nutritious fish first occurred around 800 years ago in the Philippines and spread in Indonesia, Taiwan, and into the Pacific. The fish is loaded with omega 3 fatty acids and protein which is quite essential for proper functioning of the body. Listed below are some health benefits of milkfish

1. Rich in Omega 3 fatty acids

Regular consumption of milkfish helps in the development of the brain and memory of children, prevents heart disease, controls cholesterol levels, nourishes the eyes, and reduces depression. Apart from that Omega 3 is good for pregnant women to increase breast milk and the quality. Children who are born will be healthier and smarter.

2. Good Source of Protein

Consuming milkfish can meet the protein needs of the body. The high nutrient content in milkfish can prevent coronary heart disease, also increase endurance. Regular consumption of milkfish can prevent micronutrient deficiencies and can help the overall development of the body. So include milkfish in your regular diet to obtain all the required nutrients for proper functioning of the body.

How to Eat

  • Milkfish is usually fried, made into soup and even char-grilled.
  • The meat can also be used for sashimi, fish cakes and fish balls.
  • Either fresh or processed, milkfish is the popular seafood product of Indonesian fishing towns, such as Juwana near Semarang in Central Java, and Sidoarjo near Surabaya in East Java.
  • Baby bangus is often deep fried, or cooked in oil “sardine style”. They are commonly served with head and tail intact.

Traditional benefits of milkfish

  • Regular consumption of milkfish can prevent micronutrient deficiencies and can help the growth of the nervous system and brain development.
  • Milkfish can reduce the risk of hypertension.

Other Facts

  • Milk has two weaknesses that thorns are numerous and sometimes smell like dirt.
  • National fish of Indonesia is Milkfish
  • Milkfish have no teeth and feed primarily on algae and invertebrates.

Milkfish Facts

Milkfish is a popular fish in Southeast Asia. Bandeng or bangos are the common names of milkfish that is a silver-colored Pacific salt-water fish that lays its eggs in shallow coastal waters and can withstand low-salinity water. They have an elongate and almost compressed body, with a generally symmetrical and streamlined appearance, one dorsal fin, falcate pectoral fins and a sizable forked caudal fin. Mouth is small and toothless. Body color is olive green, with silvery flanks and dark bordered fins. These fishes generally feed on cyanobacteria, algae and small invertebrates. The young fry live at sea for two to three weeks and then migrate during the juvenile stage to mangrove swamps, estuaries, and sometimes lakes, and return to sea to mature sexually and reproduce. Females spawn at night up to 5 million eggs in saline shallow waters.

Name Milkfish
Scientific Name Chanos chanos
Native First occurred around 800 years ago in the Philippines and spread in Indonesia, Taiwan, and into the Pacific
Common/English Name Bandeng, bangos, Bangus, Awa
Name in Other Languages Philippines: Bangús
Nauruan: Ibiya
Indonesia: Bandeng, bolu
Hindi:  Palai-meen
Malayalam: Poomeen
Kannada: Hoomeenu
Tamil: Palaimeen
Telegu: Pallabontha
Hawaiian: Pua awa, awa
Japanese: Sabahii
Growing Climate Found in tropical waters, rarely in waters that are affected by cold ocean currents.
Fish Shape & Size 1.80 m (5 ft. 11 in), smooth, elongate and almost compressed body, with a generally symmetrical and streamlined appearance
Fish Color Silvery on the belly and sides, grading to olive green or blue on the back and dark bordered fins.
Flesh Color White
Fish Weight About 14.0 kg
Lifespan About 15 years.
Belly Silvery
Scales Silvery
Fins Dark-colored fins
Feeds on Small plankton, algae, diatoms, and plants.
Flavor Mild flavor
Major Nutrition Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamine) 2.78 µg (115.83%)
Isoleucine 1.031 g (61.66%)
Lysine 2.054 g (61.42%)
Tryptophan 0.251 g (57.05%)
Threonine 0.981 g (55.74%)
Valine 1.153 g (54.59%)
Histidine 0.659 g (53.49%)
Leucine 1.818 g (49.19%)
Protein 22.37 g (44.74%)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 7.018 mg (43.86%)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.415 mg (31.92%)
Phosphorus, P 177 mg (25.29%)
Selenium, Se 13.8 µg (25.09%)
Total Fat (lipid) 7.34 g (20.97%)
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 0.735 mg (14.70%)
Health Benefits
  • Rich in Omega 3 fatty acids
  • Good Source of Protein
Calories in 3 oz (85 g) 162 K cal
 

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milkfish

http://www.cport.net/product/view/milkfish

http://www.clovegarden.com/ingred/sf_milkz.html

http://ecop.pbworks.com/w/page/18520702/Milkfish

https://www.suvichaar.in/milk-fish

http://philfoodie.blogspot.com/2011/09/bangus-milkfish.html

http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Chanos_chanos/

https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=413

https://www.britannica.com/animal/milkfish

https://www.spc.int/aquaculture/images/commodities/pdf/Milkfish_page.pdf

http://australianmuseum.net.au/milkfish-chanos-chanos

https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/10863360.pdf

http://www.fishbase.org/Aquaculture/AquacultureProfileSummary.php?ID=80&GenusName=Chanos&SpeciesName=chanos

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