Potatoes – Solanum tuberosum facts

Potato is a starchy root vegetable of Central American origin. It is a short, thick, underground stem with stored starches and sugars of the potato plant. Loose, friable soil and well-drained mineral or organic soils with medium loam or light or medium silty textures is best to cultivate potato as it prefers cool climate. Due to its neutral starchy flavor and delightful taste it is suitable for almost any delicacies. Potatoes are a staple part of many traditional British dishes, as well as wide-ranging international cuisine.

Name Potatoes
Scientific Name Solanum tuberosum
Native Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia
Common/English Name Common Potato, Irish Potato, European Potato, Potato, Spud, White Potato
Name in Other Languages Nepali : Aloo
Afrikaans : Aartappel
Indonesia : Kentang
Austria : Aardapfel
German : Herdapfel
Burmese : Ah Lou
India : Aalu ( Bengali)
Croatian : Krumpir
Polish : Ziemniaki
Danish : Kartoffel
Switzerland : Ardoffel
Ethiopia : Dinittch
Portuguese : Batata
Gabon : Émongo-a-mutangani ( Baduma)
Bulgarian : Kartof
Greek : Patáta
Spanish : Papa
Hungarian : Burgonya
Arabic : Batates
Chinese : Ma Ling Shu
Italian : Pomi Di Terra
Romanian : Cartof
Japanese : Jagaimo
Khmer : Damlong Barang
Laotian : Man Falangx
Malaysia : Ubi Kentang
Vietnamese : Cây Khoai Tây
Morocco : Batâtâ
Albanian : Patate
Papua New Guinea : Poteto
Czech : Brambor
Peru : Papa Común
Turkish : Patates
Philippines : Papas
Welsh : Cloron
French : Pomme De Terre
Russian : Kartofel
Dutch : Aardappel
Serbian : Krompir
Korean : Gamsa
Slovakian : Zemiak
Estonian : Kartul
Slovenian : Krompir
Icelandic : Kartafla
Swedish : Jordpäron
Finnish : Peruna
Thai : Man-Farang
Latvian : Kartupelis
Ukrainian : Kartóplja
Plant Growth Habit Erect or sprawling herb
Growing Climate Cool climate crop
Soil Loose, friable soil and well-drained mineral or organic soils with medium loam or light or medium silty textures
Plant Size 30–100 cm tall
Stem Robust angular, branched and winged stem glabrous or sparsely pubescent with simple and glandular hairs
Leaf Alternate, interruptedly odd-pinnate, with 6–8 pairs of leaflets and smaller, unequal interstitial leaflets; petiole 2.5–5 cm long, leaflet blade ovate or oblong, 2–10 cm by 1–6 cm, dark green, pinnatinerved, mostly sparingly pilose.
Flower White, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens.
Berry Green or yellowish green, often striped, globose, smooth, 1.5–2 cm in diameter.
Seeds Numerous (300), flat, sub orbicular to ovate, small, yellowish brown embedded in mucilaginous pulp.
Tuber Shape & Size Globose, oblate or elliptic; 3–10 cm in diameter; fleshy; and with axillary buds (eyes) and numerous lenticels
Tuber color White, brown, yellowish brown, pink, red, purple or purplish blue
Tuber Skin Thin, smooth or rough, brown, red or yellow colored
Flesh Color Yellow or white
Flavor/aroma Neutral starchy
Varieties/Types Coltra Potatoes, Nadine Potatoes, Queen Potatoes, Witchill Potatoes, Yukon Gold Potatoes, Wilja Potatoes, Vivaldi Potatoes, Vales Sovereign Potatoes, Shetland Black Potatoes,Saxon Potatoes, Roseval Potatoes, Rooster Potatoes, Romano Potatoes, Red King Edward Potatoes, Osprey Potatoes, Mozart Potatoes, Melody Potatoes, Maris Piper Potatoes, Lady Balfour Potatoes, Kestrel Potatoes,Innovator Potatoes,Harmony Potatoes,Estima Potatoes, Dunbar Rover Potatoes, Duke of York Potatoes, Desiree Potatoes, Carlingford Potatoes, Bambino Potatoes, Apache Potatoes, Anya Potatoes, Annabelle Potatoes,Sweet Potatoes,New Potatoes, Red Bliss Potatoes, Cara Potatoes, Exquisa Potatoes, Norland Red (all-purpose) Potatoes, Purple Majesty (all-purpose) Potatoes, Russian Banana (waxy) Potatoes, Petite Potatoes, Fingerling Potatoes, Purple/Blue Potatoes, Yellow Potatoes,White Potatoes, Red Potatoes,Russet Potatoes, Long White Potato, Round White Potato, Klondike Rose, Finger Potato, Austrian Crescent, Buttercream Potato
Major Nutrition Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.42 mg (32.31%)
Copper, Cu 0.261 mg (29.00%)
Carbohydrate 31.22 g (24.02%)
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 0.794 mg (15.88%)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 2.047 mg (12.79%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 11.5 mg (12.78%)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.153 mg (12.75%)
Potassium, K 512 mg (10.89%)
Tryptophan 0.042 g (9.55%)
Manganese, Mn 0.218 mg (9.48%)
Health Benefits
  • Cancer Prevention
  • Heart Health
  • Inflammation
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Kidney Stones
  • Digestion
  • Scurvy
  • Diarrhea
  • Satiety and Weight Management
  • Skin Care
  • Rheumatism
  • Brain Function
  • Weight Gain
Calories in 1cup (156gm) 134 Kcal