Basal ganglia

Clusters of neurons located deep in the brain; they include the caudate nucleus and the putamen (corpus striatum), the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra. The basal ganglia appear to be involved in higher-order aspects of motor control, such as planning and execution of complex motor activity and the speed of movements.

Lesions of the basal ganglia produce various types of involuntary movements, such as athetosis, chorea, dystonia, and tremor. The basal ganglia also are involved in the pathophysiology of parkinson’s disease, huntington’s disease, and tardive dyskinesia.

The internal capsule, containing all the fibers that ascend to or descend from the cerebral cortex, runs through the basal ganglia and separates them from the thalamus.

Masses of grey matter lying deep within each cerebral hemisphere.

In anatomy, the lower part of the brain that contains putamen, caudate nucleus.

Masses of grey matter at the base of each cerebral hemisphere which receive impulses from the thalamus and influence the motor impulses from the frontal cortex.

Masses of gray matter lying in the brain’s cerebral cortex and involved in the control of body movements.

A motor control area of the brain. The basal ganglia are clusters of nerve cells (neurons) deep within the brain that help control voluntary movement. In movement disorders such as Huntington chorea (a progressive disorder involving degeneration of nerve cells in the cerebrum), there is an untimely deterioration of nerve cells in the basal ganglia. Parkinson disease is caused by degeneration of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia. Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that stimulates the nerves in the basal ganglia. When the basal ganglia nerve cells do not function properly, symptoms of Parkinson disease occur, which include muscle stiffness, tremor, slowness, and imbalance.

Four masses of gray matter located deep in the cerebral hemispheres: caudate, lentiform, and the claustrum. Parkinsonism and Huntington’s chorea are diseases of the basal ganglia, which are key components in the formation of habits and unconscious motor programs. The caudate and lentiform nuclei and the fibers of the internal capsule that separate them constitute the corpus striatum. The function of the basal ganglia is complex. They contribute to some of the subconscious aspects of voluntary movement such as accessory movements and inhibiting tremor. They do not initiate movement but rather provide coordination of complex motor circuits. Neurotransmitters that affect the basal ganglia are acetylcholine, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin.

Situated within the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, there exists a cluster of gray matter masses that hold sway over the regulation of movement, alongside certain facets of emotion and cognition.

The basal ganglia are paired clusters of nerve cells located deep within the cerebrum, which is the main mass of the brain, as well as in the upper part of the brainstem. These structures play a crucial role in facilitating smooth and coordinated muscle movements, as well as initiating and halting movements as needed. When the basal ganglia and their connections are affected by diseases or degeneration, it can result in the emergence of involuntary movements, trembling, and weakness, which are characteristic symptoms of conditions like Parkinson’s disease.