Salts of weak acids and bases that resist a change in the pH when acid or alkali is added.

A mixture of compounds which, when added to a solution, protects it from any substantial change in pH.

In pharmacology, a mixture of an acid and its conjugate base which, when present in a solution, reduces any changes in pH that would otherwise occur when an acid or alkali is added to the solution, buffering effect.

A substance that keeps a constant balance between acid and alkali.

A solution where the pH is not changed by adding acid or alkali.

A compound that resists a change in hydrogen ion concentration in solution.

An acid-base buffer is a chemical substance or solution that produces resistance to change in pH. During exercise, metabolism is directed toward the production of an acidic environment. Many nutrients and supplements have been marketed for the potential to produce a buffering capacity, thereby having an ergogenic effect. Most commonly, these substances, such as sodium bicarbonate, are used to enhance performance of relatively short, very intense bouts of exercise. While in some cases buffering aids have been demonstrated to be effective, other compounds used to buffer acid production have been less successful.

Chemical that is added to another to avert a radical change in concentration or pH in the second; a device or system that tends to prevent change, as in body temperature or blood pressure.

A substance that reduces or prevents excess acid or alkali in the body.

A solution whose hydrogen ion concentration (pH) remains virtually unchanged by dilution or by the addition of acid or alkali. The chief buffer of the blood and extracellular body fluids is the bicarbonate (H2CO3/HCO3-) system.

Any of several molecules that react with strong acids or bases to prevent large changes in the pH of body fluids.

The concept that a third variable such as a personality trait can reduce the impact of stressors.