Category: B

  • Borderline substances

    Foods that may have characteristics of medication in certain circumstances, and which may then be prescribed under the National Health Service in UK.  

  • Borborygmos

    (Plural borborygmi); audible abdominal sound produced by excessive intestinal motility.  

  • Body density

    Body fat has a density of 0.90, while the density of fat free body mass is 1.10. Determination of density by weighing in air and in water, or by measuring body volume and weight, permits calculation of the proportions of fat and lean body tissue. Body mass divided by body volume, body composition. Weight (mass)…

  • B-lymphocytes

    Bursa-equivalent lymphocytes. After maturation into plasma cells they produce antibodies (immunoglobulins) during humoral responses in immunological reactions. They were first discovered in the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken; hence the name. A class of white blood cells originating in the bone marrow and found in blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. They are the precursors…

  • Blood sugar

    Blood sugar

    Glucose; normal concentration is about 5 mmol (90 mg)/l, and is maintained in the fasting state by mobilisation of tissue reserves of glycogen and synthesis from amino acids. Only in prolonged starvation does it fall below about 3.5 mmol (60 mg)/l. If it falls to 2 mmol (35 mg)/I there is loss of consciousness (hypoglycaemic…

  • Blood plasma

    The liquid component of blood, accounting for about half its total volume; a solution of nutrients and various proteins. When blood has clotted, the resultant fluid is known as serum. A yellow watery liquid which makes up the main part of blood.  

  • Bland diet

    A diet that is non-irritating, does not over-stimulate the digestive tract and is soothing to the intestines; generally avoiding alcohol, strong tea or coffee, pickles, and spices. A diet in which someone eats mainly milk-based foods, boiled vegetables and white meat, as a treatment for peptic ulcers. Diet designed to potentially avoid irritation of the…

  • Black tongue disease

    Black tongue disease

    A sign of niacin deficiency in dogs, the canine equivalent of pellagra. A disease of dogs. Significant in human health since niacin was discovered in 1937 when it was found to cure black tongue in dogs.  

  • Biuret test

    A chemical test for proteins based on the formation of a violet colour when copper sulphate in alkaline solution reacts with a peptide bond. A method for measuring protein in the serum. The presence of biuret can be detected by the addition of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate solutions to the sample. A rose to…

  • Bitot’s spots

    Bitot’s spots

    Irregularly shaped foam-like plaques on the conjunctiva of the eye, characteristically in vitamin A deficiency, but not considered to be a diagnostic sign without other evidence of deficiency. Small white spots on the conjunctiva, caused by vitamin A deficiency [Described 1863. After Pierre A. Bitot (1822-88), French physician.] Shiny foam-like spots on the white of…