An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
An organic mental disorder in which there is a deterioration of previously acquired intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. Memory disturbance is the most prominent symptom. In addition, there is impairment of abstract thinking, judgment, impulse control, and/or personality change. Dementia may be progressive, static, or reversible, depending on the pathology and the availability of effective treatment.
Loss of individually acquired mental skills; Alzheimer is a severe form of dementia.
A severe mental disorder involving impairment of mental ability.
The loss of mental ability and memory due to organic disease of the brain, causing disorientation and personality changes.
Condition characterized by a reduction in cognitive function.
Long-term or irreversible deterioration of intellectual functioning, affecting memory, personality, visual skills, spatial relations, and general thinking ability. Dementia may result from some kinds of organic mental disorders, as from illness or injury, or may accompany some other kinds of mental disturbances, such as schizophrenia.
Progressive state of mental decline, especially of memory function and judgment, often accompanied by disorientation, stupor, and disintegration of the personality. It may be caused by certain metabolic diseases, drug intoxication, or injury, in which cases it is often reversible once the underlying cause is treated. If, however, it is caused by a disease such as Alzheimer’s disease, by brain injury, or by degeneration brought about by aging (senile dementia), the changes that occur are irreversible.
Loss of cognitive and intellectual functioning due to a variety of brain disorders.
A progressive decline in intellectual function that makes normal thought and activity increasingly difficult.
A syndrome marked by a progressive loss of memory and other intellectual functions. Although it can occur at any age, dementia is most common in older people. Its early signs may be as subtle as simple forgetfulness and confusion. However, an affected person gradually cannot function normally and eventually becomes incapacitated. Dementia is not a normal consequence of aging. More than half of all cases are caused by Alzheimer’s disease and are irreversible. Among the potentially reversible causes of dementia are deficiencies in thyroid hormone and vitamin B12.
A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes due to organic brain disease. It is marked by memory disorders, changes in personality, deterioration in personal care, impaired reasoning ability, and disorientation. Presenile dementia occurs in young or middle-aged people. The term is sometimes reserved for Alzheimer’s disease and Pick’s disease, but it is important to distinguish these conditions from those brain diseases for which curative treatment may be available.
An acquired and irreversible deterioration in intellectual function. Around 10 per cent of people aged over 65 and 20 per cent of those aged 75 or over are affected to some extent. The disorder is due to progressive brain disease. It appears gradually as a disturbance in problem-solving and agility of thought which may be considered to be due to tiredness, boredom or depression. As memory failure develops, the affected person becomes bewildered, anxious and emotional when dealing with new surroundings and complex conversations. Catastrophic reactions are usually brief but are commonly associated with an underlying depression, which can be mistaken for progressive apathy. The condition progresses relentlessly with loss of recent memory extending to affect distant memory and failure to recognize even friends and family. Physical aggression, unsocial behaviour, deteriorating personal cleanliness and incoherent speech commonly develop. Similar symptoms to those of dementia can occur in curable conditions including depression, intracranial tumours, subdural haematoma, syphilis, vitamin B1 deficiency and repeated episodes of cerebral ischaemia. This last may lead to multi-infarct dementia.