Category: B

  • Bovine somatotrophin (BST)

    The natural growth hormone of cattle; biosynthetic BST is used in some dairy herds to increase milk production (approved for use in the USA in 1993, prohibited in the EU).  

  • Botulism

    A rare form of food poisoning caused by the extremely potent neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Acute food poisoning caused by the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. A dangerous form of food poisoning that is caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulism can occur in preserved food contaminated by the toxin and…

  • Borderline substances

    Foods that may have characteristics of medication in certain circumstances, and which may then be prescribed under the National Health Service in UK.  

  • Borborygmos

    (Plural borborygmi); audible abdominal sound produced by excessive intestinal motility.  

  • Body density

    Body fat has a density of 0.90, while the density of fat free body mass is 1.10. Determination of density by weighing in air and in water, or by measuring body volume and weight, permits calculation of the proportions of fat and lean body tissue. Body mass divided by body volume, body composition. Weight (mass)…

  • B-lymphocytes

    Bursa-equivalent lymphocytes. After maturation into plasma cells they produce antibodies (immunoglobulins) during humoral responses in immunological reactions. They were first discovered in the bursa of Fabricius in the chicken; hence the name. A class of white blood cells originating in the bone marrow and found in blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. They are the precursors…

  • Blood sugar

    Blood sugar

    Glucose; normal concentration is about 5 mmol (90 mg)/l, and is maintained in the fasting state by mobilisation of tissue reserves of glycogen and synthesis from amino acids. Only in prolonged starvation does it fall below about 3.5 mmol (60 mg)/l. If it falls to 2 mmol (35 mg)/I there is loss of consciousness (hypoglycaemic…

  • Blood plasma

    The liquid component of blood, accounting for about half its total volume; a solution of nutrients and various proteins. When blood has clotted, the resultant fluid is known as serum. A yellow watery liquid which makes up the main part of blood.  

  • Bland diet

    A diet that is non-irritating, does not over-stimulate the digestive tract and is soothing to the intestines; generally avoiding alcohol, strong tea or coffee, pickles, and spices. A diet in which someone eats mainly milk-based foods, boiled vegetables and white meat, as a treatment for peptic ulcers. Diet designed to potentially avoid irritation of the…

  • Black tongue disease

    Black tongue disease

    A sign of niacin deficiency in dogs, the canine equivalent of pellagra. A disease of dogs. Significant in human health since niacin was discovered in 1937 when it was found to cure black tongue in dogs.