Jackfruit facts and benefits

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Jackfruit facts and benefits Quick Facts
Name: Jackfruit facts and benefits
Scientific Name: Artocarpus heterophyllus
Origin Native to Pacific, South and Southeast Asia
Colors Golden, greenish to yellow to brownish
Shapes Oblong to cylindrical; Length: 30 to 40 cm; spiky; composite
Flesh colors Amber, yellow, orange
Calories 157 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Vitamin B6 (41.77%)
Carbohydrate (29.51%)
Vitamin C (25.11%)
Potassium (15.72%)
Vitamin B1 (14.42%)
Health benefits Promotes immunity power, Provides magnesium, Lowers heart problems, Supports digestion, Treat osteoporosis
Artocarpus heterophyllus is also referred with various common names such as Jackfruit tree, Jackfruit, jack, jak, Banun, Ekifenensi, Kaihal, Kanthal, Kathal ke beej, Katahal, Kathal, Katthar, Khanun, Khanum, Khnaor, Kothal, Kifenensi, Kos, Kulu jaka, etc. It belongs to the family Moraceae. The tree is medium sized which grows from 28 to 80 ft in height. The leaves are dark green, elliptical, 3-12 cm broad and 5-25 cm long. The fruit is produced on side branches as well as main branches. It produces slightly oval fruit which has spiky light green skin. The fruit weighs about 3.5 to 10 kg. The interior part of the fruit possesses orange to yellow colored bulbs that possess sweet flavored sheaths. These bulbs possess a smooth, light brown colored and oval seed which measures about 2-4 cm long and is 1-3 cm thick. Each fruit possess from 100-500 edible bulbs. Being edible, these seeds are great source of dietary fiber, complex carbohydrate, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, A and minerals such as zinc, calcium and phosphorus. It also possesses saponins, isoflavones, lignans. The tree does well in tropical humid and rainy climates and is rarely survival on cold and frosty conditions. The unripened fruits are usually green and turns to light brown in colored when gets ripened.

History

Jackfruit was originated from Southwest India and was spread throughout Southeast Asia and Tropical Africa. In 12th century, it was introduced to Philippines and domesticated. It is highly regarded for its fruit, medicinal uses and timber for India and Southeast Asia.

Nutritional value

Jackfruit is loaded with Vitamin C, A, riboflavin, thiamin, potassium, calcium, sodium, zinc and niacin. 165 grams of raw jackfruit contains 157 calories. It is a great source of potassium that helps to lower the blood pressure. Due to richness in Vitamin C, it acts as an antioxidant that eliminates free radicals, makes gum healthy and strengthens immune system. It also includes the phytonutrients such as isoflavones, lignans and saponins that have numerous health benefits and provides antiulcer, antihypertensive, anticancer and antiaging properties. It prevents the formation of cancer cells, counteracts stomach ulcers, lower blood pressure and also slows down degeneration of cells. It has niacin which is essential for nerve function, energy metabolism and synthesis of hormones.

Varieties of Jackfruit

  1. Black Gold

It is the jackfruit which produces medium sized fruit of about 6.7 kg. It has dark green exterior with sharp fleshy spine which are zig-zag. The flesh is soft with a sweet, strong flavor as well as aroma.

  1. Cheena

Cheena is an exotic fruit which produces narrow, long and uniform fruits in shape as well as size. It has green skin with blunt spines that are yellow. The fruits are small and weigh about 2.4 kg. It has deep orange flesh which is soft and fibrous. It possess an excellent flavor with intense and earthy aroma.

  1. Cochin

This fruit is small and smooth which produces the fruit of 1.5 kg. It possesses mild and firm flesh with little latex.

  1. Red Bartlett

It is the fruit of medium and oval shape. The color of the fruit is bright green to pale yellow in color having uniform shape. It has firm and deep orange flesh with mild and sweet flavor as well as sweet aroma.

  1. Golden Nugget

This variety has dark green and rounded leaf. It possesses small, round and green fruits with fleshy spines on its skin. When it matures, the spines become smooth and turn into golden to yellow. It has deep orange flesh which is soft to medium firm.

  1. Golden Pillow

It was introduced from Thailand in 1980s. It bears the fruit of 3.6 to 5.5 kg. It contains from 65 to 75 seeds in a fruit with little latex. It has crisp and thick flesh of golden color. It has sweet and mild flavor.

Health Benefits of Jackfruit

The pulp derived from the young fruits is used as vegetable that might be pickled or canned. It is used in making jam, chutney, jelly and paste. Its pulp is also used to flavor beverages and ice cream. The seeds are consumed roasted, boiled, dried or salted as table nuts. The root of Jackfruit is used as an aid for asthma and skin diseases. The root extract is used to cure diarrhea and fever. This fruit is a great source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals such as phosphorus, zinc and calcium. It also possess antihypertensive, anti-cancer, anti-ulcer and anti-aging properties. Let us discuss the health benefits in detail:

  1. Promotes immunity power

Jackfruit is a great source of Vitamin C, antioxidants as well as cancer fighting phytonutrients such as isoflavones, lignans and saponins. It also counteracts free radicals that exist in the body. The antioxidants help to enhance immune function by eliminating the existing free radicals from the body. It counteracts cancer and strengthens immune system.

  1. Provides magnesium

Magnesium is vital for maintaining the bones structure. Women have high chances of magnesium. Magnesium helps to lower high blood pressure, heart disease and diabetes by providing strong bones.

  1. Lowers heart problems

This fruit has high content of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12 and folic acid which helps to lower heart disease. It occurs due to low content of homocysteine which is essential for the building block of protein.

  1. Supports digestion

Jackfruit is helpful for the digestive health and people with constipation. The seeds are the great source of dietary fiber which assists constipation and supports in weight loss.

  1. Treat osteoporosis

Jackfruit has calcium which lowers the chances of osteoporosis and its onset. Osteoporosis occurs when the body is not able to replace the lost calcium. Jackfruit is a great source of calcium which helps to treat the condition of osteoporosis.

Traditional uses

  • Leaves ashes are used to treat diarrhea, ulcers, stomach ache and boils.
  • The decoction made from root is used to lower fever and treat skin diseases, diarrhea and asthma.
  • The latex possesses anti-bacterial properties.
  • Sap acts as a vermifuge and anti-syphilitic.
  • The mixture of dried latex and vinegar is used to speed up healing of abscesses, glandular swellings and snakebites.
  • It prevents contamination with bacteria that are caused due to food borne illnesses.
  • The seeds and pulp of jackfruit is used to overcome the influence of alcohol.
  • Roots are used as an aid for asthma and skin diseases.
  • In order to treat fever, diarrhea and asthma, use 3-4 cups of decoction of root daily.
  • The fruit pulp is used to suppress alcohol in the body.
  • The bark is used to treat boils, fever, skin problems and wounds.
  • In Mauritius, it is used for the treatment of diabetes.
  • The hot water extract of mature leaves is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diabetes.
  • Fruit latex is used to treat opthalmities, dysopia and pharyngitis.
  • The bark is used to lower intestinal motility and used to treat dysentery as well as diarrhea.
  • It is helpful for the people with erectile dysfunction, low libido and premature ejaculation.
  • It prevents the body from bacterial infections and viral infections.
  • It improves immune system.
  • The daily intake of this fruit helps to prevent cancer and also eliminates free radicals.
  • It assists the bowel movement.
  • It helps to enhance the eyesight.
  • It also assists in clotting of blood.
  • The extract of leaves and latex assist in the prevention of ringworm infestation and also heals the crack feet.
  • It also lowers the appearance of wrinkles.

Precautions     

  • Pregnant women should not use it because as it possess sedative properties it could promote abortion.
  • It also increases coagulation in the people with blood disorders.
  • The people allergic to birch pollen should avoid it.
  • Its seeds provide immunostimulative effect in the patients of immunosuppression therapy with tissue transplants.
  • It lowers blood sugar level in diabetic patients.
  • Jackfruit should not be used two weeks before scheduled surgery because it might cause too much drowsiness.
  • People taking blood medications such as aspirin or blood thinners should avoid it.
  • Excessive consumption of Jackfruit results in abnormal stool conditions as well as upset stomach due to the high content of fiber.

How to Eat         

  • Fruits are consumed raw.
  • The seeds and pulp of young fruit are cooked as vegetable.
  • The grounded seeds are used for making biscuits.
  • The seeds are boiled, roasted or baked.
  • It is cooked with coconut milk in Philippines.
  • Unripe jackfruit slices are used to make chips by deepfrying in Southern India.
  • Jackfruit is used to make addae and appa in Udipi cuisine.
  • It is added to soups, fried and baked dishes.
  • It is also preserved in syrup.Mix the slices of Jackfruit with honey, grated coconut and banana slices to make a dessert.
  • The fruit could be used for preparing chutney, jelly and jam.
  • The slices of fruit could be added to fruit salads.
  • It is used to make fruit rolls, candies, ice cream and marmalades.

Other Facts

  • The fruit can measure from 3 kg to 36 kg.
  • The wood is used to make furniture, musical instruments and house construction.
  • Each tree could produce from 100 to 200 fruits per year.
  • Jackfruit is composed about 80% water.
  • It possesses the flavor of mixture of banana, mango, papaya and melon.
  • A jackfruit possesses 100 to 500 seeds.
  • The root extracts are used traditionally to treat asthma, fever and diarrhea.

Jackfruit facts

It is a tropical or subtropical evergreen tree which is inherent to India and Malaya Peninsula. The tree is large and straight trunked. The fruits have the shape of melon that has 1-3′ long and 9-20″ diameter. The unripened fruits are pale green which turns to greenish to yellow with soft custard and yellow inner flesh. The fruits are prepared as vegetable. The leaves are glossy, leathery and elliptic to ovate.

Name Jackfruit facts and benefits
Scientific Name Artocarpus heterophyllus
Native Native to Pacific, South and Southeast Asia
Common/English Name Jackfruit tree, Jackfruit, jack, jak, Banun, Ekifenensi, Bu luo mi, Jaca-dura, Jaca, Jaca-mole, Jak, Jakobo, Kanoon, Kaihal, Kanthal, Kathal ke beej, Katahal, Kathal, Katthar, Khanun, Khanum, Khnaor, Kothal, Kifenensi, Kos, Kulu jaka, Lamasa, Lamkhuang, Lamkhong, Langka, Ma mi, Malasa, Makmi, Mfenesi mfuu, Mfenesi, Mfenesi, Miiz hnang, Miiz, Moe ulu initia, Mit, Nangka, Pala, Nongko, Peignai, Phanas, Peinne, Pilapalam, Plavu, Te mai rekereke, Polos, Thaiphlung, Tshackka, Theibong, Tsjaka, Varaka, Uto ni idia, Yakobo
Name in Other Languages Assamese:  Konthal (কণ্ঠাল), Konto phol (কণ্টফল), Kontok phol (কণ্টকফল ),  Kontoki (কণ্টকি), Kontoki phol (কণ্টকীফল), Kothal (কঁঠাল), Pholkontok (ফলকন্টক);
Bengali: Kathal (কাঁঠাল);
Chinese: Bo luo mi, Bo luo mi, Mu bo luo, Bo luo mi, Shu bo luo;
Danish: Jackfrugttrae;
Dutch: Nangka, siri broodboom;
French: Jacquier;
Finnish: Intianleipäpuu;
German: Indischer Brotfruchtbaum, Jackfruchtbaum, Jackfrucht, Nangka;
Gujarati: Phannasa;
Hindi: Cakki, Kanthal, Katahal, Kathal (कटहल), Kathal (कठल);
Italian: Falso albero del pane;
Japanese: Nagami pannoki (ナガミパンノキ), Paramitsu;
Kannada: Halasina hannu, Panasero, Halasu, Alasu;
Khmer: Khnor;
Korean:  Baramil (바라밀);
Laotian: Mai mi, Mi (mii, mee), Mak mi;
Malagasy: Finésy;
Malay: Nangka bubor, Keledang (Timor), Nangka (Bali, Indonesia);
Malayalam:  Chakka (ചക്ക ), Chakka maram, Kottachakka, Pila, Pilavu, Plavu;
Mandinka: Jak;
Marathi:  Phanas (फणस); 
Nepalese: Rukh kutaherr;
Oriya: Panasa (ପନସ);
Persian: Derakhte nan;
Portuguese: Jaca, jaqueira;
Sanskrit: Panasam (पनसम्), Panasah (पनस);
Sinhalese: Kos, Jak;
Spanish: Fruta del pobre, Arbol del pan, Jaka, Jaca, Jaqueiro;
Swahili: Fenesi;
Swedish: Jackträd, jackfrukt;
Tagalog: Langka;
Tamil: Palavu, Pila, Palaa (பலா);
Telugu: Panasa, Panas (పనస);
Thai:  Khanun ( ขนุน) , Maak laang, Makmee (Maak mee);
Vietnamese:  Mít;
Plant Growth Habit Tropical, evergreen
Growing Climate Equatorial-subtropical maritime
Soil Well-drained
Plant Size Height: 20 m
Bark Smooth, Thick: 10-12 mm, blackish to grey
Leaves Green, leathery, glossy
Fruit shape & size Oblong to cylindrical; Length: 30 to 40 cm; spiky; composite
Fruit weight 4.5-30 kg; Maximum: 50 kg
Fruit color Golden, greenish to yellow to brownish
Flesh color Amber, yellow, orange
Fruit peel Rough and thick
Flavor/aroma Unique, fruity, distinctive sweet
Seed Light brown to brown, rounded, Diameter: 1-1.5 cm (0.4-0.6 inches), Length: 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 inches)
Varieties/Types
  • Black Gold
  • Cheena
  • Cochin
  • Red Bartlett
  • Golden Nugget
  • Golden Pillow

References:

http://www.fruitsinfo.com/Jackfruit.php

https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/jackfruit_ars.html

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Langka.html

http://www.diethealthclub.com/health-food/jackfruit.html

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1487-jackfruit.aspx?activeingredientid=1487&activeingredientname=jackfruit

http://www.womenplanet.in/health-fitness/health-benefits-jackfruit-kathal

http://wiki-fitness.com/jackfruit-health-benefits-nutrition-facts/

http://www.amazingfacts4u.com/jackfruit/

https://draxe.com/jackfruit/

http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Artocarpus.html

http://www.gbif.org/species/2984565/vernaculars

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=184183#null

http://www.gbif.org/species/2984565/synonyms

http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/910/

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=70095

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artocarpus+heterophyllus

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=282749&isprofile=0&

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