Mustard Greens – Brassica juncea Facts

Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea variety rugosa) also known as Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard and Leaf Mustard is a type of mustard plant with edible leaves, stem and seeds. Mustard greens originated in the Himalayan region of India and have been consumed for more than 5,000 years. For more than 3,000 years the Chinese have cultivated Mustard Greens. Mustard greens are the leaves of the mustard plant. There are actually many different varieties of mustard greens, ranging in leaf size and shape and color from green to red to purple. The most common type in the US is bright green with a frilly, ruffled texture. This beautiful color and texture is another great reason to incorporate mustard greens into your cooking!

Name Mustard greens
Scientific Name Brassica juncea
Native Native to sub-Himalayan plains of the Indian sub-continent
Common/English Name Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Jie Cai or Kai Choi or leaf mustard, brown mustard
Plant Growth Habit Annual, fast growing, cool-season, nutritious leafy greens
Growing Climate Cool season vegetable that prefers a sunny location
Soil Prefers well-drained, fertile soil high in organic matter
Plant Size 0.5 to 2 feet tall and 1 to 2 feet broad
Leaf Shape & Size Broad, crumpled or flat texture and may have either toothed, scalloped, frilled, or lacey edges.
Leaf Color Most mustard greens are actually emerald green in color, while some are not green at all but rather shades of dark red or deep purple.
Leaf Flavor Spicy, peppery Dijon Mustard flavor
Leaf Taste Peppery taste
Flower Golden yellow flowers
Pods Sickle-shaped green seed pods
Seed Acrid tasting brown seeds
Varieties/Types Mizuna, Chinese Green Mustard, Southern Giant Curled Mustard, Ethiopian Mustard, Florida Broadleaf, Green-in-Snow, Osaka Purple-Leaved, Red Giant, Tai Tau Choi, Cha Tsoi, French Brown, Burgonde Tilney
Major Nutrition Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 829.8 µg (691.50%)
Vitamin A, RAE 865 µg (123.57%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 35.4 mg (39.33%)
Selenium, Se 0.8 mg (34.78%)
Copper, Cu 0.204 mg (22.67%)
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 2.49 mg (16.60%)
Calcium, Ca 165 mg (16.50%)
Iron, Fe 1.22 mg (15.25%)
Betaine 0.3 µg (12.50%)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.137 mg (10.54%)
Health Benefits
  • Reduces Symptoms of Arthritis
  • Prevents Urinary Stones
  • Fights off Colds and Flu
  • Pregnant Women
  • Fights Cancer
  • Heart health
  • Prevents Acne
  • Eye health protection
  • Improves mental health
  • Rich in Antioxidants
  • Healthy joints & bone health
Calories in 1cup (100gm) 36 Kcal


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