Onion – Allium cepa Facts

Onions are vegetables that belong to the lily family of plants. It is grown for its edible bulb, which most often serves to flavor a variety of foods. Onions are categorized as being either green or dry onions. The amazing onion provides layers of flavor, color, and texture to a wide variety of dishes and cuisines. It has also been used in traditional medicines since ancient times for its health promoting and curative properties. Onion grows in temperate regions, on the sandy and well drained soils. Besides high nutritional value, onion beneficially affects human health.

Name Onion
Scientific Name Allium cepa
Native Central Asia
Common/English Name Bombay Onion, Brown Onion, Bulb Onion, Common Onion, Onion
Name in Other Languages German : Bolle
Albanian : Qepë
India : Piyaj
Arabic : Bassal
Azerbaijani : Sogan
Nepal : Pyaz (Nepali), Chāp (Newar)
Basque : Kipula
French Haiti : Zonyon ( Creole )
Bosnian : Crni Luk
Catalan : Ceba
Dutch : Ajuin
Turkmen : Sogan
Estonian : Sibul
Finnish : Punasipuli
Icelandic : Höfuđlaukur
Macedonian : Kokar
Italian : Cipolla
Slovenia : Čebula
Bulgarian : Luk
Tibetan : Tsōn
Chechen : Xox
French : Oignon
Gaelic ( Irish ): Oinniún
Czech : Cibule
Portuguese : Ceba
Korean : Dungulpha
Breton : Ognon
Thai : Hom Farang
Japanese : Tamanegi
Turkish : Soğan
Welsh : Nionyn
Galician : Cebola
Afrikaans : Ui
Lithuanian : Valgomasis Svoqūnas
Brunei : Bawang
Majorcan : Ceba
Belarusian : Tsabulji Zepchatyi
Serbian : Arpadžik
Philippines : Sibuyas ( Bikol )
Uzbek : Piyoz
Khmer : Khtüm Barang
Persian : Piyaaz
Swedish : Lök
Kurdish : Pyāz
Zulu : U-Anyanisi
Greek : Kremmy Di To Koino
Hungarian : Hagyma
Indonesia : Bawang Bombaj
Spanish : Ajo Porro
Amharic : Gäyy Šenkurt
Russian : Luk Repčatyj
Hebrew : Bazal
Swahili : Kitunguu
Yiddish : Tsibehleh
Burmese : Kyet-Thun
Slovak : Cibul’a Kychyňská
Norwegian : Kepalřk Kepaløk
Sri Lanka : Luku Loonu ( Sinahla )
Chinese : Chhang-Thâu
Sorbian : Cybula
Vietnamese : Cu Hành
Papua New Guinea : Anian
Ukrainian : Cibulja
Romanian : Ceapă Ceaclama
Kashmiri : Prān
Laotian : Bwàx Fàlangx
Croatian : Crni Luk
Georgian : Khakhvi
Latvian : Sīpols
Armenian : Soch
Malaysia : Bawang
Gaelic ( Scottish ): Uinnean
Danish : Kepa-Løg
Niuean : Aniani
Polish : Cebula
Somali : Basal
Tajik : Piëz
Plant Growth Habit Biennial herb
Growing Climate Cool season vegetable
Soil Well drained, fertile soil rich in organic matter
Plant Size 15 to 45 cm (6 to 18 in)
Root Adventitious, fibrous roots
Leaf Yellowish-green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy, hollow, and cylindrical, with one flattened side.
Flower Globular umbel of white flowers with parts in sixes.
Fruit Shape & Size Depressed globose, ovoid or elongate, varying in size from cultivar to cultivar, 5–8 × 3–10 cm.
Fruit Color Yellowish brown, orangey brown, purplish, red, greyish white or white forming the protective coat
Flavor/Aroma Sharp, pungent smell
Seed Glossy black and triangular in cross section.
Varieties/Types Snow White Hybrid Onion, White Granex Onion, Bianca Onion, Gladalan White Onion, White Spanish Onion, Mild Onions, Candy Hybrid Onion, Walla Walla Sweet Onion, Granex Yellow Hybrid Onion, Texas Super sweet Onion, Sweet and Early Hybrid Onion, Yellow Ebenezer Onion, Savannah Sweet Onion, Sweet Spanish Hybrid Onion, Texas Grano Onion, Giant Red Hamburger Onion, Salad Red Onion, Red Delicious Onion, Redshine Onion, Redwing Onion,  Red Emperor Onion, Evergreen Long White Onion,Parade Onion, White Lisbon Onion, Creamgold Onion, Murray Brown Onion, Baby Onion, Pearl Onion, Bermuda Onion, Egyptian Onion, Fresh Onion, Maui Onion, Scallion onion, Shallot onion, Spanish Onion, Sweet Onion, Vidalia Onion, Cipollini Onion, Yellow Multiplier Onion, Gurney’s Sweet Mesquite Hybrid Onion
Season Mid-May to mid-June.
Major Nutrition Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.192 mg (14.77%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 11.8 mg (13.11%)
Carbohydrate 14.94 g (11.49%)
Manganese, Mn 0.206 mg (8.96%)
Vitamin B9 (Folate) 30 µg (7.50%)
Total dietary Fiber 2.7 g (7.11%)
Copper, Cu 0.062 mg (6.89%)
Phosphorus, P 46 mg (6.57%)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.074 mg (6.17%)
Threonine 0.034 g (5.00%)
Health Benefits
  • Cancer Prevention
  • Treatment of Anemia
  • Good Oral Health
  • Relieving Earache
  • Treating Urinary Disorders
  • Anti-Microbial Effects
  • Relieves Stomach Aches
  • Boosts Sexual Drive
  • Treatment for Heart Ailments
  • Blood Sugar Regulation
  • Immune System Strength
  • Treatment for Cough
  • Bone Health
  • Used as Insect Repellent
  • Glowing Skin
Calories in 1cup (100gm) 64 Kcal

Onion (Allium cepa) Scientific Classification

Scientific name Allium cepa
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Order Liliales
Family Liliaceae
Genus Allium L.
Species Allium cepa L.
Super division Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Sub Class Liliidae


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