|African mustard Quick Facts|
|Scientific Name:||Brassica tournefortii|
|Origin||Southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, Pakistan, southern and central Australia|
|Colors||Initially green turning to brown or tan as they mature|
|Shapes||Elongated seed pods that can reach a length of about 5-10 centimeters (2-4 inches) and are slender and cylindrical in shape|
|Taste||Pungent, peppery, and slightly bitter|
|Health benefits||Rich in Antioxidants, Anti-Inflammatory Properties, Supports Digestive Health, Boosts Immunity, Promotes Heart Health, Bone Health, Aids Weight Management, Eye Health, Detoxification, Anti-Cancer Properties|
This tough plant does well in a wide range of climates and soil types. This makes it easy to grow and flexible. The plant is picked from the wild and sometimes grown on a small scale to make seed oil and food for people in the area. African Mustard is mostly known as an unwanted weed, but it has been used for many different things in the past. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine because they might be good for health. In some places, the leaves have been eaten as a food. Also, the seeds of African Mustard can be pressed to get oil that can be used in cooking or in industry.
African Mustard Facts
|Scientific Name||Brassica tournefortii|
|Native||Southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia and Pakistan. It is widely naturalized in southern and central Australia|
|Common Names||Saharan Mustard, wild turnip-rape, Wild Mustard, long-fruit turnip, Brassica Weed, Pale Cabbage, Sahara Mustard, African Wild Mustard, tournefort’s birdrape, long fruited wild turnip, Yellow Rocket, Mediterranean Mustard, Sahara Desert Mustard, Desert Mustard, Turnip Weed, Asian Mustard, Sahara Mustard Weed, Sahara Brassica, Yellow Rocket, Mediterranean turnip, wild turnip, African mustard, Moroccan mustard, prickly turnip, Tournefort’s Mustard|
|Name in Other Languages||Arabic: Khardal Afrqi (خردل أفريقي), Qarras, Shiltam, shartam ( shirtam),شرطام ( شِرطام), shaltam (shiltam) (شلطام (شِلطام), brasika turnifur (براسيكا تورنفور)
Bengali: Aphrikān sarisha (আফ্রিকান সরিষা)
Chinese: Fēizhōu jiècài (非洲芥菜)
Dutch: Afrikaanse Mosterd
English: African Mustard, Asian mustard, Mediterranean mustard, Mediterranean turnip, Pale Cabbage, Saharan mustard, Long-fruit turnip, Wild turnip, Long-fruited wild turnip, Mediterranean wild mustard, Turnrip rape, Tournefort’s birdrape
French: Moutarde d’Afrique, Chou de Tournefort
German: Afrikanischer Senf
Greek: Afrikanikó mustárdo (Αφρικανικό μουστάρδο), vrassikí tournefórteios (βρασσική τουρνεφόρτειος)
Gujarati: Āphrikana rā’ī (આફ્રિકન રાઈ)
Hebrew: Keruv hachof, כְּרוּב הַחוֹף
Hindi: Afrikī sarasōṁ (अफ्रीकी सरसों)
Italian: Senape Africana, cavolo di tournefort
Japanese: Afurika musutādo (アフリカムスタード), Harigenatane (ハリゲナタネ)
Kannada: Āphrikān sāsive (ಆಫ್ರಿಕನ್ ಸಾಸಿವೆ)
Korean: Apeurika gyeoja (아프리카 겨자)
Maithili: Afrikī tori (अफ्रिकी तोरी)
Malayalam: Āphrikkan kaṭukuppacāra (ആഫ്രിക്കന് കടുകുപ്പച്ചാര)
Marathi: Āphrikana rā’ī (आफ्रिकन राई)
Nepali: Afrikī tori (अफ्रिकी तोरी)
Newari: Afrikī torī (अफ्रिकी तोरी)
Portuguese: Mostarda Africana
Punjabi: Āpharīkī sarasōṁ (ਆਫ਼ਰੀਕੀ ਸਰਸੋਂ)
Russian: Afrikanskaya gorchitsa (Африканская горчица), kapusta gulyavnikovaya (капуста гулявниковая), kapusta gulyavnikovidnaya (капуста гулявниковидная), kapusta Turnefora (капуста Турнефора)
Spanish: Mostaza Africana, mostaza, mostaza del desierto, mostaza del Sahara, mostaza amarguera
Swahili: Khardali ya Afrika
Tamil: Āpprikkaṉ kaṭukuppaccai (ஆப்பிரிக்கன் கடுகுப்பச்சை)
Telugu: Āphrikan āvālu (ఆఫ్రికన్ ఆవాలు)
Tunisian Arabic: Lafat earabiun (لفت عربي)
Turkish: Etekli şalgam
UK: Bresychen welw
Welsh: Bresychen Welw
|Plant Growth Habit||Fast-growing, drought-tolerant, herbaceous annual or biennial plant|
|Growing Climates||Agricultural fields, roadsides, abandoned lands, disturbed natural ecosystems, desert regions, dunes, waste grounds, areas with sandy or rocky soils|
|Soil||Prefers well-drained soil that is rich in organic matter. The soil should be loose and crumbly, allowing proper root development and water drainage. A slightly acidic to neutral pH level of around 6.0 to 7.0 is ideal|
|Plant Size||Grows between 30 and 90 centimeters (12 to 36 inches) tall|
|Root||Roots consist of a primary taproot that grows vertically into the soil, providing stability and anchorage to the plant|
|Stem||Erect and grows vertically. Young plants usually have slender and thinner stems, while more mature plants develop thicker and sturdier stems to support the growth of leaves, flowers, and seed pods.|
|Leaf||Leaves are deeply lobed and can vary in shape. They are typically pinnatifid, meaning they have deeply incised lobes that give them a feather-like appearance. The lobes may be irregularly toothed or serrated along the edges|
|Flowering season||Range from May to July|
|Flower||Produces vibrant yellow flowers in elongated clusters or racemes. The flowers are small and have four petals arranged in a cross shape, characteristic of plants in the Brassicaceae family. Each flower measures approximately 5-7 millimeters (0.2-0.3 inches) in diameter|
|Fruit Shape & Size||Elongated seed pods that can reach a length of about 5-10 centimeters (2-4 inches) and are slender and cylindrical in shape. The seed pods contain numerous tiny black seeds, which are approximately 1-2 millimeters (0.04-0.08 inches) in size|
|Fruit Color||Initially green turning to brown or tan as they mature|
|Seed||Seeds are tiny and oval or oblong in shape. They are slightly flattened and have a shape that is either curved or rounded|
|Flavor/Aroma||Pungent and earthy that is reminiscent of mustard|
|Taste||Pungent, peppery, and slightly bitter|
|Plant Parts Used||Leaves, roots, seeds and flowers|
|Propagation||By seeds, transplanting young seedlings, stem cuttings and prolific self-sowing|
|Lifespan||Within one or two years|
|Season||June to August|
African mustard is an annual or biennial grass plant that grows quickly and can survive in dry conditions. It usually grows between 30 and 90 centimeters (12 to 36 inches) tall. The plant grows in farmland, along roadsides, on unused land, in disturbed natural environments, deserts, dunes, wastelands, and places with sandy or rocky soil. The plant does best in dirt that drains well and has a lot of organic matter. Soil should be loose and crumbly so that roots can grow and water can drain away. The best pH level is between 6.0 and 7.0, which is a little bit acidic to neutral.
Appropriate growing environment
African Mustard thrives in specific growing conditions. Here are the key elements of an appropriate growing environment for African Mustard:
- Climate: African Mustard grows best in warm to cool areas. It grows well in places where the temperature stays between 15°C (59°F) and 25°C (77°F) for most of the year. It can handle both dry and wet situations, but it may have trouble in very hot or cold weather.
- Sunlight: For best growth, it needs a lot of sunshine. It does best in full sun, which is usually described as at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight per day. Make sure the area where you plant gets enough sunshine for the plant to grow well.
- Temperature: African Mustard likes temperatures between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F). It can survive in a wide range of temperatures, but too much heat or cold can hurt its growth. Make sure that the temperature ranges in the growth area are right.
- Soil: African Mustard likes dirt that drains well and has a lot of organic matter. Soil should be loose and crumbly so that roots can grow and water can drain away. The best pH level is between 6.0 and 7.0, which is a little bit acidic to neutral. To make the earth more fertile, you could add organic compost or well-rotted manure.
- Watering: When African Mustard is just starting to grow, it is very important to water it enough. Keep the soil fairly moist, but don’t water it too much because too much water can cause the roots to rot. Once it is established, African Mustard can handle some dry times, but it still needs consistent moisture to grow well.
- Spacing: It is important to leave enough space between African Mustard plants so that air can flow and the plants can get enough sunlight. Follow the spacing rules, which are usually about 15 to 30 centimeters (6 to 12 inches) between plants, to keep them from getting too close together and to let them grow well.
The African Mustard has a system of taproots. The main root grows straight down into the ground right under the plant. From the taproot, secondary and tertiary roots grow; making a network of branches that spreads across the ground and goes deeper into the dirt. It is usually thick and round, like the main root of a plant. It can be different sizes based on how old the plant is and what stage of growth it is in. At first, the taproot is thin and long, but as the plant grows, it gets thicker and stronger, giving the plant support and a place to anchor itself. From the main root, branch roots grow in different directions horizontally. These roots grow out from the main taproot and can be seen to branch off. In general, the branch roots of African Mustard are thinner and have more fibers than the taproot.
The roots of African Mustard can go deep into the dirt to find water and food. Since the taproot is the main root, it usually goes deeper into the dirt than the lateral roots. The depth of the root system relies on many things, such as the type of soil and how much water is available. At different times of growth, the roots of African Mustard can be different sizes. At first, the roots are thin and fragile, but as the plant grows, the roots get bigger and stronger to meet the plant’s growing need for nutrients and water.
Stem is straight and grows up. It is shaped like a cylinder and has a surface that is mostly smooth. The stem usually grows straight and up, giving the plant structure. How thick the stem is depends on how old the plant is and what stage of growth it is in. Stems on young plants tend to be thin and thin, but as plants get older, they get thicker and stronger to support the growth of leaves, flowers, and seed pods.
Branches can form on stems based on how the plant is growing and how old it is. Branches come out of the stem’s nodes and can grow in different ways, such as alternately or oppositely. The plant looks thick in general because it has branches. The stem of African Mustard is usually green, which shows that chlorophyll is present. The color of the stem can be a little different, especially in smaller plants, where it can look paler or lighter green. Stems can grow up to a height of about 1 meter (3.3 feet), based on the plant’s health and the conditions around it. The height of the stem is part of what makes the African Mustard plant big and tall.
The leaves have many points and wide lobes. Pinnatifid leaves look like feathers or ferns because their lobes reach almost to the midrib or center vein. The tips of the leaf lobes are cut or toothed in an irregular way. African Mustard leaves can be different sizes based on how old the plant is and what is going on around it. Younger leaves are usually smaller than older ones, which are bigger and more developed. Depending on the growth stage, the leaves can be anywhere from a few centimeters to a few inches long. The leaves of African Mustard are usually a bright green color, which shows that chlorophyll, the pigment that makes photosynthesis happen, is present. The color can be a little different depending on things like how much sunshine it gets and how many nutrients are around.
Leaves show a prominent vein structure. The main veins, which are also called midribs, run from the leaf’s base to its tip, where they split into secondary veins. The veins are very important because they carry water, nutrients, and sugars all over the leaf. Along the stem, the leaves are grouped in pairs. Alternate leaf arrangement means that each leaf comes out of the stem at a different place. As you move up the stem, the sides where the leaves come out of the stem change. Most leaves are smooth and feel a bit slippery when you touch them. The top of the leaf is usually smoother, while the bottom, which has small hairs called trichomes, may feel a little bit rougher.
The flowers are small and grow in long groups called racemes. Each flower has four petals that make a cross shape. This is typical of plants in the family Brassicaceae. Their width is about 5–7 millimeters (0.2–0.3 inches), which is not very big. Even though each flower is small, they all grow together to make long inflorescences. The flowers’ four petals are a bright yellow color. Each petal is round and may have small differences in size and shape. The sepals are green structures that look like leaves and wrap around the flowers. The sepals guard the flower bud while it grows and give the flower its shape.
There are parts for reproduction, like petals and pistils, inside the flower. The stamens are the male reproductive organs. They are made up of structures that look like filaments and are topped by anthers that hold sperm. The female reproductive part is the pistil, which is made up of the stigma, the style, and the ovary. African Mustard usually blooms during its blooming season, which can be different from place to place and depend on the weather. When growing conditions are good, the plant makes a lot of flowers, which add to its beauty.
The fruit is a siliqua, which is a long, thin pod. Silique is a type of food that is unique to plants in the family Brassicaceae, which African Mustard is a member of. The silique is a dry fruit that splits open along two sides to let the seeds out. Fruits can be different sizes, but on average, they are between 2 and 4 inches long, or 5 to 10 centimeters. The exact size may depend on things like how old the plant is and how it grows. Fruits are round and have points at the ends. The pods are long and not very wide, which makes them look skinny. The form of the fruit is one of the things that make it stand out and make it easy to recognize.
As African Mustard pods get older, they usually change color from green to brown or tan. The change in color shows that the fruits are getting ready to be eaten. When the pods are ready, they may feel a little dry or papery. The seeds of African Mustard are released when the flowers, which are called valves, split open on two sides. When the fruits are fully grown, they split open, which lets the seeds spread.
The seeds are tiny and oval or oblong in shape. They are slightly flattened and have a shape that is either curved or rounded. In general, most of the seeds have the same shape. They are very small, about 1 to 2 millimeters (0.04 to 0.08 inches) long. The size can be a little different based on things like how old the seeds are and the weather. Most seeds are dark brown to black in color. The dark color of the grown seeds is one of the things that make them stand out. The surface of seeds is smooth and shiny. The top coat of the seed is thin, giving it a smooth surface. There may be small lines or bumps on the surface. These patterns are normal, and they don’t hurt the seed’s ability to grow or germinate.
The Mediterranean area, which includes parts of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, is thought to be where African Mustard came from. It is naturally suited to the dry and semi-dry climates of these places. Over time, African Mustard spread outside of its original range because of many things, including what people did. The plant has grown wild in many places around the world, such as North America, Asia, Australia, and other parts of Europe. It does well in disturbed environments, along roadsides, in farms, and other places where it can grow well.
In many places where it has been imported, African Mustard is seen as an invasive plant species. It has been able to take over these places because it grows quickly, makes a lot of seeds, and outcompetes native plants. The plant’s ability to spread can hurt environments by pushing out native plants and changing the way natural communities work. Ecologists and people in charge of land have paid a lot of attention to how widespread African Mustard is. It is known for being able to quickly take over damaged areas, help stop soil loss, and even act as a pioneer plant in efforts to restore an ecosystem. But its growth and ability to take over can hurt biodiversity and the way ecosystems work.
Health Benefits of African Mustard
African Mustard, also called Brassica tournefortii in the science world, not only adds a lot of flavor to your food but also has a number of health benefits. This versatile plant has been used as medicine for hundreds of years because it is full of important nutrients and bioactive substances. Let’s explore the detailed health benefits of African Mustard:
1. Rich in Antioxidants
African Mustard is a good source of antioxidants like vitamin C and flavonoids. These antioxidants protect your cells from damage caused by dangerous free radicals. This lowers your risk of getting heart disease, cancer, and other long-term illnesses.
2. Anti-Inflammatory Properties
African Mustard contains glucosinolates and other bioactive substances that help fight inflammation in the body. Arthritis, diabetes, and being overweight are all linked to long-term inflammation. If you eat African Mustard, it may help lower inflammation and improve your health as a whole.
3. Supports Digestive Health
African Mustard has a lot of fiber, which helps keep your gut system healthy. It gives the stool more bulk, which prevents constipation and helps the bowels move regularly. Also, the phytochemicals in African Mustard may help protect against stomach problems like gastric ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
4. Boosts Immunity
Because it has a lot of vitamin C, African Mustard is a natural way to boost your defense system. Vitamin C helps the body fight off infections and diseases by making the immune system stronger. Adding African Mustard to your diet might help you avoid getting colds and the flu.
5. Promotes Heart Health
African Mustard is good for your heart because it has omega-3 fatty acids and fiber. Omega-3 fatty acids help lower the chance of heart disease and reduce inflammation. By lowering LDL (bad) cholesterol, fiber helps keep cholesterol levels in a safe range.
6. Bone Health
Minerals like calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, which are found in African Mustard, are important for keeping bones strong and healthy. If you eat African Mustard regularly, it might help avoid bone problems like osteoporosis and broken bones.
7. Aids Weight Management
African Mustard is a great food to add to a diet to help you lose weight because it is low in calories and high in fiber. The fiber makes you feel full longer, so you eat fewer calories altogether.
8. Eye Health
African Mustard has vitamin A and beta-carotene, which help keep your eyes healthy and may lower your risk of getting cataracts and macular degeneration as you age.
There are sulfur-based chemicals in African Mustard that help the body’s natural detoxification processes. These chemicals help the body gets rid of dangerous toxins and protects against reactive stress.
10. Anti-Cancer Properties
Researchers have looked at the bioactive chemicals in African Mustard, especially the glucosinolates, to see if they might help fight cancer. They may help stop cancer cells from growing and lower the risk of some types of cancer, like breast, prostate, and colon cancer.
African Mustard has culinary uses in certain regions, where the young leaves, shoots, and flowers of the plant are incorporated into various dishes. Here are some culinary uses of African Mustard:
- Leafy Green Vegetable: Young African Mustard leaves are often used in cooking as fresh greens. They can be picked and used as a healthy veggie in food. The leaves have a strong spicy and slightly bitter taste that gives dishes a unique flavor.
- Salads and Raw Preparations: Raw dishes can be made with the leaves of African Mustard. They can be torn or chopped into smaller pieces and put in a salad with greens, tomatoes, cucumbers, herbs, and so on. The spicy taste of the leaves gives salads a zesty kick.
- Stir-fries and Sautéed Dishes: African Mustard leaves can be sautéed with other veggies or protein sources or used in stir-fries. The leaves wilt quickly when cooked, so they should be put near the end. They give stir-fries a slightly bitter and pungent flavor that makes the food taste better overall.
- Soups and Stews: The leaves of African Mustard can be added to soups and stews. They can be added during cooking to add flavor to the broth or to add leafy greens to the food. The leaves can go well with the other ingredients and give the dish a rich, hearty flavor.
- Braised and Sautéed Dishes: African Mustard leaves can be cooked by themselves or with other veggies by braising or sautéing. When you braise the leaves, you cook them slowly in liquid until they are soft. When you sauté them, you cook them quickly in oil or butter over high heat. With these ways, the leaves keep their taste and texture while taking on a slightly caramelized flavor.
- Flavor Enhancer: African Mustard leaves can be added to different foods to make them taste better. Their spicy and bitter taste makes sauces, dressings, and marinades more interesting, especially when they are used in them. To add their flavor to a dish, they can be finely chopped or made into a paste.
- Traditional and Regional Recipes: African Mustard leaves are often used in traditional and regional dishes, which show how important they are to the culture and history of the area. These recipes might be different from place to place, with African Mustard leaves being a key ingredient in dishes that are typical of the local culture.
African Mustard has various uses beyond culinary applications. Here are different uses of African Mustard in detail:
- Fodder for Livestock: In some parts of the world, African Mustard can be used to feed animals. Animals can eat the leaves and soft roots of the plant, which can provide them with food. Cattle and sheep, for example, may eat African Mustard as a part of their food, especially in places where the plant grows a lot.
- Soil Improvement and Erosion Control: African Mustard has the ability to make the soil better because it grows where it can. Its deep root system helps improve the structure of the soil by letting water soak in better and stopping dirt from washing away. Also, as the plant breaks down, it adds organic matter to the earth, which makes the soil more fertile.
- Ecological Restoration: African Mustard is useful for ecological restoration because it grows quickly and can take over damaged places. It can be used as a pioneer plant to help stabilize the soil, stop erosion, and start the recovery of environments that have been damaged. But care must be taken to keep it from spreading into wild areas and becoming invasive.
- Cover Crop and Green Manure: African Mustard is used in agriculture as a cover crop or “green manure.” It grows quickly and can kill weeds, which makes it good for weed control. When plant matter is mixed into the soil, it breaks down and adds organic matter and nutrients. This improves the soil’s structure and nutrition.
- Forage Crop: In some parts of the world, African Mustard is grown to feed animals. Animals like cattle, sheep, and goats eat the plant’s leaves and soft roots. It gives them food, especially during times when there may not be much else to eat.
- Companion Planting: African Mustard can be grown near other plants to help them grow better. It can help keep away some pests or bring in good bugs. Its presence in the garden can help produce a diverse and well-balanced ecosystem, which can help keep pests away and improve the health of the plants as a whole.
- Phytoremediation: Through a process called phytoremediation, African Mustard can take in heavy metals from polluted soil and store them. It can help clean up the soil by soaking and storing heavy metals, which makes them less likely to be in the soil.
- Educational and Research Purposes: African Mustard is often used in schools and research labs to learn about different parts of plant biology, environment, and farming. It is used as a model plant species to learn about how plants grow, develop, and respond to different environments.
- Traditional Crafts and Dyeing: African Mustard has been used in some countries to make traditional arts and crafts and as a natural dye. Plant parts, like stems or flowers, can be used to make natural dyes that can be used to color fabric or craft items in yellow or green.
Side effects of African mustard
While African Mustard has culinary and potential agricultural uses, it’s important to consider potential side effects and precautions associated with its consumption or use. Here are some side effects of African Mustard in detail:
- Allergic Reactions: Some people may be allergic to African Mustard or other plants in the Brassica family. Allergic reactions can be mild or serious, and they can cause symptoms like rashes, itching, swelling, trouble breathing, or stomach pain. If you know you are allergic to Brassica plants, you should stay away from African Mustard.
- Skin Irritation: Handling African Mustard plants or their parts, like their leaves or stems, can make sensitive people’s skin itch or cause allergic reactions. If you touch the plant directly, it can make your skin red, itch, or give you eczema. It is best to wear gloves or other protective clothes when working with African Mustard, especially if you have had skin problems in the past.
- Goitrogenic Effects: Like other plants in the Brassica family, African Mustard has chemicals called goitrogens. Goitrogens can stop the thyroid from working by making it hard for the thyroid to take in iodine. This can cause a goiter or hypothyroidism. But the goitrogenic effects are often caused by eating a lot of raw or uncooked Brassica plants on a daily basis. African Mustard is unlikely to cause major goitrogenic effects when it is cooked or eaten in small amounts.
- Drug Interactions: Some medicines may not work well with African Mustard. It has chemicals in it called glucosinolates that can change how drugs are broken down. If you take drugs that are broken down by certain enzymes, like cytochrome P450 enzymes, talk to your doctor to find out if there are any possible interactions between African Mustard and your medicines.
- Invasive Nature: Even though African Mustard doesn’t have a direct effect on people’s health, it’s important to know that it is considered an invasive species in many places. It can hurt environments and biodiversity because it grows quickly and can outcompete native plants. To stop damage to the environment, it is important to stop African Mustard from spreading on purpose or by accident into wild areas.
Different ways of Management of African mustard
The management of African Mustard is crucial to control its invasive spread and mitigate its impact on native ecosystems. Here is some management strategies commonly used:
- Prevention and Early Detection: The best way to deal with African Mustard is to stop it from being brought in and spreading. This includes keeping an eye out for new outbreaks and finding them early so that action can be taken quickly.
- Mechanical Control: To get rid of African Mustard plants, you can pull them out by hand or mow them down. This works best when done before seeds are made, so that healthy seeds don’t get spread. Make sure that all plant material is thrown away properly so that it doesn’t get spread by chance.
- Herbicide Application: African Mustard numbers can be kept in check with selective herbicides. Herbicides should be picked and used according to the rules and laws in the area. It is important to think about how herbicides might affect species that are not the goal, and to use them when the weather is right.
- Biological Control: To lower the number of African Mustard plants, biological control methods use natural enemies like insects or diseases. To make sure that the organisms that are brought in are safe and effective, this method needs a lot of research and testing.
- Restoration and Native Species Enhancement: African Mustard can be stopped from spreading by restoring and improving the native plants in places where it is growing. This means putting in place a variety of natural plant communities to make African Mustard less likely to grow and restore ecological balance.
- Education and Awareness: It is very important to let landlords, people in charge of land and the general public know about the effects of African Mustard. Spreading this invasive plant by accident can be stopped by encouraging responsible behavior, like cleaning tools and cars to get rid of seeds.
- Monitoring and Adaptive Management: It is important to keep an eye on African Mustard populations on a regular basis so that management methods can be evaluated and changed as needed. Change how you deal with African Mustard outbreaks based on where they are and what they look like.