High blood pressure is the process of increasing pressure in the body’s blood vessels, which is also called hypertension. Its feature is that it can be both an independent disease and a symptom of many other diseases. In the second case, symptomatic or secondary arterial hypertension is observed.
High blood pressure is considered one of the most common chronic diseases of our time, which is observed both in the elderly and in the young. It is essential to know the HBP symptoms and the methods to low the blood pressure.
Causes of high blood pressure
Medicine does not know exactly the cause of high blood pressure. However, several factors can later become the basis for hypertension. These include the following processes:
- hereditary tendency to increase blood pressure, which is the main cause of its occurrence;
- increased body weight;
- low level of physical activity during the day;
- improper nutrition, unbalanced diet, and consumption of harmful substances, for example, an excessive amount of table salt;
- constant stress that harms the body as a whole;
- bad habits — smoking and excessive alcohol consumption;
- an increased cholesterol level in the body is more than 5 mmol/l.
Given the range of possible causes of chronic hypertension, it is recommended that each person regularly check their blood pressure, performing this procedure at least every two years
Why the high blood pressure is so dangerous
You can die from a sharp increase in pressure – this condition is called a hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crisis – a sharp increase in pressure in the blood vessels, up to 180/120 mm Hg. Art. and higher. It can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or damage to other internal organs, such as the kidneys.
When a person lives with high blood pressure for a long time, the excess stress gradually changes the biological properties of the walls of his blood vessels. They become very vulnerable and sensitive to any stressors – from emotional stress to eating a lot of salt.
If the pressure increases even more in such a person, the blood vessels can no longer adapt. Plasma begins to sweat through the walls of blood vessels – and as a result, organ edema develops. It is one of the critical mechanisms of damage in hypertensive crises.
In addition to organ edema, excess pressure can directly damage blood vessels.
People experience heart attacks in different ways. Some die almost immediately from cardiac arrest, while others first experience weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath, severe pain, or pressure in the chest. If urgent help is not provided to a person, after a while, he may die.
High blood pressure symptoms
Of course, the main symptom of the course of pathology is increased blood pressure. But to determine that this is not a situational increase in blood pressure, but the disease is indeed chronic, it is necessary to measure several times under various conditions. If, in this case, indicators are observed, the value of which will exceed the mark of 140 (upper) and 90 (lower), you should contact your family doctor for advice.
Also, the following chronic hypertension symptoms indicate poor health:
- severe headache that causes great discomfort and does not stop for a long time;
- frequent dizziness not associated with external factors;
- unreasonable occurrence of nausea against the background of headaches;
- a rapid increase in heart rate;
- the appearance of localized pain in the region of the heart;
- blurred vision and the appearance of haze before the eyes;
- the appearance of shortness of breath and asthma attacks;
- the occurrence of swelling.
Such symptoms indicate that the disease is progressing and can already affect the entire body, affecting other organs.
How to lower the blood pressure
If you feel unwell, it is best to call a doctor and get professional advice. But if you have long been accustomed to living with high blood pressure, and taking all prescribed medications, then you can adjust your habits – these methods can also work. So, how to low blood pressure?
- Eat healthily and reduce salt: The standard salt intake in many countries is 9-12 g per day, considering “hidden” mineral sources (for example, in ready-made foods or sauces). The standard is 5 g per day. The same is true for hypertension. Reducing salt in the diet helps to reduce systolic blood pressure.
- Stop smoking and limit alcohol: Every cigarette you smoke raises your blood pressure long after you smoke it. Quitting smoking helps normalize blood pressure, reduce the risk of heart disease, and improve overall health. Heavy drinking can raise blood pressure by several points and reduce the effectiveness of medications.
- Watch your weight and waistline: One of the factors that a person with high blood pressure should pay attention to is their own weight. Reducing excess body weight for every 10 kilograms can reduce blood pressure by 5-20 mm. rt. Art. Without any other additional activities. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity, sudden death, and reduced life expectancy. Overweight increases the risk of diabetes, certain types of cancer, sleep apnea, heart arrhythmias, and several other diseases.
- Manage the stress level and sleep problems: This is the main cause of high blood pressure. Stress mobilizes the body, so the pulse quickens, and blood vessels constrict. Often, such conditions provoke compulsive overeating and uncontrolled drinking, negatively affecting the heart and circulatory system. The easiest way to reduce stress is to listen to soothing music and get at least 7-8 hours of sleep. You should rethink your work schedule and reduce your workload.
- Exercise regularly: Research has shown that exercise can help lower blood pressure. And it doesn’t have to be hard at all. Enough 30 minutes of moderate exercise per day, including walking at an accelerated pace (6-7 km / h), 5-7 days a week. Nordic walking, cycling, swimming, and fitness are also suitable workouts. At the same time, the higher your activity is, the lower the arrow of the tonometer will fall. The main thing is to choose an activity you like and move a lot: dance, play sports or work in the garden.
- Consult your doctor and take prescribed medicines: In most cases, patients with increased blood pressure try to lower it on their own. But, only an experienced doctor can carry out a complete diagnosis and determine all the symptoms of the disease, and only based on the received data make a course of treatment. After receiving the results of the tests and conducting an anamnesis, doctors prescribe the necessary drugs for high blood pressure, taking into account the accompanying pathologies and the patient’s individual requirements.
- Measure blood pressure at home: Use the blood pressure monitor with heart rate to monitor your blood pressure at home and consult your doctor regularly. Home monitoring will help you better understand which lifestyle changes are working and which are not.
High blood pressure has long secured the name of the gloomy poetic image of the “disease of the century.” It is often referred to as the “silent killer” because the symptoms are so common that most people consider them to be just fatigue and overexertion, so they don’t pay enough attention. However, with the systematic repetition of the same symptoms, it is necessary to visit a specialist. Although many people experience high blood pressure throughout their lives, it is necessary to have a high blood pressure control to avoid life-threatening situations. In addition, regular health screening is recommended.