Facts about Grumichama

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Grumichama Quick Facts
Name: Grumichama
Scientific Name: Eugenia brasiliensis
Origin Eastern and coastal southern Brazil, especially in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina
Colors Initially green turning to bright-red and finally dark-purple to nearly black as it ripens
Shapes Globose to oblate berry, 1.25 to 2.5 cm (0.5 to 1 in) in diameter
Flesh colors White yellowish
Taste Mild sub acid taste
Health benefits Used for treating rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders.
Brazil cherry or Grumichama scientifically known as Eugenia brasiliensis is a handsome fruit tree belonging to Myrtaceae (Myrtle family). The plant is native to Brazil; it is found wild in eastern and coastal southern Brazil, mostly in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina. The crop is cultivated in Brazil and Paraguay. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Florida, California, Hawaii, Honduras, Cuba, Angola and East Malaysia (Sabah). Some of the well-known common names of the plant include Brazilian Cherry, Grumichama, Red-Fleshed Grumichama, Spanish Cherry, Brazilian Plum, Grumixameira, Grumixama, Cumbixaba, Grumixaba, Ibaporoti, Oula and Sinaili. The species name brasiliensis indicates its original range. The edible fruit is greatly valued within its native range, where it is collected from the wild and also cultivated in home gardens. The plant is also cultivated in gardens as an ornamental and for its edible fruit outside of its native range in areas of the tropics and subtropics such as Florida, Hawaii and Paraguay. With its narrow crown, it has been suggested for street planting.

Grumichama Facts

Name Grumichama
Scientific Name Eugenia brasiliensis
Native Found wild in eastern and coastal southern Brazil, especially in the states of Parana and Santa Catarina
Common Names Brazil Cherry, Brazilian Cherry, Grumichama, Red-Fleshed Grumichama, Spanish Cherry, Brazilian Plum, Grumixameira, Grumixama, Cumbixaba, Grumixaba, Grumixameira, Ibaporoti, Oula, Sinaili
Name in Other Languages Arabic: Grumyshama (غروميشاما),  ywjinat birazilia (يوجينة برازيلية)
Brazil : Cumbixaba, Grumixama, Grumichameira, Grumixameira
Catalan:  Grumixama
Chinese: Bāxī yīngtáo (巴西櫻桃)
Czech : Hřebíčkovec Brazilský
Danish : Brasiliansk Kirsebær
English: Brazil-cherry, Grumichama, Red-fleshed grumichama, Brazilian plum, Spanish cherry
French: Cerisier du Brésil, Jambosier du Brésil, Bois Dè Nefle
Jambosier Du Brésil, cerieier du Japon, cerise du Brésil, pruneau
German: Brasilianische Kirschmyrte, Brasilianische
Ilocano: Grumichama
Japanese: Burajirian cherī (ブラジリアン・チェリー )
Komi: Grumichama (Грумичама)
Lak: Grumichama (Грумичама)
Persian:  گیلاس برزیلی  
Polish:  Goździkowiec brazylijski
Portuguese: Grumixaba, Grumixameira, Cumbixaba, Ibaporoiti, Grumixama, cerejeira-do-brasil               
Russian:  Yevgeniya brazil’skaya (Евгения бразильская), Evgeniya brazil’skaya (Эвгения бразильская), Brazil’skaya vishnya (Бразильская вишня), Grumichama (Грумичама)
Spanish: Cereza de Brasil, Grumichama, Grumichameira, Pomarosa Forastera
Udmurt: Grumichama (Грумичама)
Plant Growth Habit Attractive slender, tropical, evergreen shrub or small tree
Growing Climates Atlantic rainforest, alluvial plains and gentle slopes
Soil Thrives on acid soils such as deep fertile, sandy loams but will also grow on rich clays. It does best in full sun but will tolerate partial shade
Plant Size Up to 14 m (45 ft.) tall. However, it is normally 3 to 7 m (10 to 23 ft.)
Root Shallow root system
Bark Greyish bark cracks and peels with age
Leaf Opposite, oval-oblong, 9–16 cm long and 5–6 cm wide, simple with recurved margin, minutely pitted on both surface. Leaves are soft and wine red when they emerge and become dark glossy green with a leathery texture when mature
Flowering season Starts from mid-March
Flower Flowers are 1 in (2.5 cm) across, with four green sepals, four white petals and numerous erect, needle-like white stamens (about 100) each with a tiny, pale yellow, pollen-filled anther at the tip
Fruit Shape & Size Globose to oblate berry, 1.25 to 2.5 cm (0.5 to 1 in) in diameter and bears the persistent, purple- or red-tinted sepals, (1.25 cm) long, at its apex.
Fruit Color Initially green turning to bright-red and finally dark-purple to nearly black as it ripens
Fruit skin Skin thin, firm and exudes dark-red juice
Flesh Color White yellowish
Seeds Seeds 1 more or less round, or 2 to 3 hemispherical, hard, light-tan or greenish-gray seeds to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide and half as thick.
Taste Mild sub acid taste
Propagation By seed or by cuttings or grafting
Season April to May

Plant Description

Grumichama is an attractive slender, tropical, evergreen shrub or small tree that normally grows up to 14 m (45 ft.) tall. However, it is normally 3 to 7 m (10 to 23 ft.) with a short squamous trunk and tufted branches, tinny and brittle supporting an oval or pyramidal crown. Its greyish bark cracks and peels with age. The short, cylindrical bole can be 25 – 40 cm in diameter. The plant is found growing in Atlantic rainforest, alluvial plains and gentle slopes. The plant thrives on acid soils such as deep fertile, sandy loams but will also grow on rich clays. It does best in full sun but will tolerate partial shade.

Leaves

Leaves are opposite, oval-oblong, 9–16 cm long and 5–6 cm wide, simple with recurved margin, minutely pitted on both surface. Leaves are soft and wine red when they emerge and become dark glossy green with a leathery texture when mature. They are usually shining dark green on the upper face while lighter on the underside. They are arranged in pairs along the ends of the branches and remain on the plant throughout the year.

Flower

Inflorescence in terminal clusters on branches, or borne singly in the leaf axils. Flowers are 1 in (2.5 cm) across, with four green sepals, four white petals and numerous erect, needle-like white stamens (about 100) each with a tiny, pale yellow, pollen-filled anther at the tip. They are perfect (with female and male parts) and bloom in large numbers on the tree. Flowering normally starts from mid-March.

Fruit

Fertile flowers are followed by fruit that are oblate, 1.25 to 2.5 cm (0.5 to 1 in) in diameter. Fruits are initially green turning to bright-red and finally dark-purple to nearly black as it ripens, and bears the persistent, purple- or red-tinted sepals, (1.25 cm) long, at its apex. The skin thin, firm and exudes dark-red juice. The red or white pulp is juicy and tastes much like a true sub acid or sweet cherry except for a touch of aromatic resin. There may be 1 more or less round, or 2 to 3 hemispherical, hard, light-tan or greenish-gray seeds to 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide and half as thick. Fruit are born singly on new growth. As non-climacteric fruits, it must be harvested ripe. Frits are mostly used for fresh eating but can also be used in making jams, jellies and pies.

Traditional uses and benefits of Grumichama

  • The bark and leaves consists of 1.5% of essential oil.
  • In Brazil, the leaf or bark infusion in water is aromatic, astringent, diuretic and employed as a treatment for rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders.
  • It is an aromatic, astringent diuretic.

Culinary Uses

  • The cherry like fruits are eaten fresh, candied or stewed.
  • They are also utilized for the production of jelly, jam and pies.
  • The fruit can be eaten raw.
  • Ripe fruits are eaten out of hand or made into juices and marmalade.
  • Seeded fruits are occasionally added to fruit salads.
  • Sauce made of boiled fruits and sugar is used for pie fillings and cakes.
  • Grumichama jelly and syrup can be found at some of Hawaii’s farmers’ markets.
  • In the Caribbean, a reduction made from the juice of the fruit is used to accompany fish dishes.
  • It can also be used as base for hot sauces.
  • Processed puree is used in jam and jelly or in sauces.

Other Facts

  • The small tree size favors its use in urban ornamental landscaping.
  • Its wood is utilized in carpentry, woodworking and turnery.
  • The bark contains about 43% tannin.
  • The bark and leaves contain tannins and essential oil.
  • Wood is easy to work, compact, hard, and moderately heavy and is used for cabinets, linings, boxes, and general carpentry.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=506183#null

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/eugenia_brasiliensis.htm

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=16148

https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Eugenia+brasiliensis

http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Eugenia+brasiliensis

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/EUEDO

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-74560

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grumichama

https://www.growables.org/information/TropicalFruit/grumichamapage.htm

https://www.iplantz.com/plant/671/eugenia-brasiliensis/

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/23055

https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/grumichama.html

https://plants.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=EUBR7

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