Health benefits of Indian Rosewood (Shisham)

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Indian rosewood Quick Facts
Name: Indian rosewood
Scientific Name: Dalbergia sissoo
Origin Indian Sub-continent, Myanmar and possibly also neighboring countries
Colors Pale brown
Shapes Oblong, flat, thin, strap-like pods that are 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) long, 1 cm (0.39 in) wide
Taste Acrid, Astringent, bitter
Health benefits Body Irritation, Stomach irritation, Eye disease, Fight with Fever, Cure anemia, Urinary Disease, Gonorrhea, Cure diarrhea, Treat Cholera, Hemorrhage, Wound, Leucorrhoea, Syphilis disease, Cystica Diseases
Shisham or Indian rosewood scientifically known as Dalbergia sissoo is a fast-growing, hardy, deciduous tree belonging to Fabaceae (peas, legumes family). The plant is native to the foothills of the Himalayas of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar and possibly also neighboring countries. It is mostly found growing along riverbanks below 900 m elevations, but can ranges naturally up to 1500 m. Bombay blackwood, Himalaya raintree, India teakwood, Indian dalbergia, Indian rosewood, Sisham, sissoo, East Indian rosewood, penny leaf tree, shisham and sisso are some of the popular common names of the plant. Others include tanach, aagasra, padimi, tall, tahli, shin, yette, nukku, kattai, gette and karra.

The generic name Dalbergia honors the Swedish brothers Nils and Carl Dalberg, who lived in the 18th century. The former was a botanist and the latter explored Surinam. The plant has ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through bacteria located in nodules present in the root system. The leaf litter that gathers and decomposes also contributes to soil fertility by adding additional nitrogen, potassium, iron, manganese, and organic carbon. Propagation is done by seeds and also by root suckers. Various parts of the plant are used as medicines.

Plant Description

Indian rosewood or shisham is a fast growing, hardy, medium to large, deciduous, long-lived tree with a spreading crown and thick branches. Normally the plant attains the height up to 25 m (82 ft.) and 2 to 3 m (6 ft. 7 in to 9 ft. 10 in) in diameter, but is usually smaller. The plant grows mostly on sands and gravels along watercourses, irrigated plantations, roadsides and canals, around farms and orchards as windbreaks, gregarious colonizer of landslips, hillsides, new embankments, grasslands, natural and planted forests, along forest margins, hammocks, canopy gaps, agricultural areas and disturbed sites. The plant thrive on a variety of soils types, from dry to wet but is not particularly salt-tolerant. The plant has a long taproot and numerous surface roots which produce suckers. Young shoots are downy and drooping, established stems with thick, rough and grey bark, up to 2.5 cm (0.98 in) thick and has shallow, broad, longitudinal fissures exfoliating in irregular woody strips and scales, large upper branches support a spreading crown.

Indian Rosewood Facts

Name Indian rosewood
Scientific Name Dalbergia sissoo
Native Indian Sub-continent, Myanmar and possibly also neighboring countries.
Common Names Bombay blackwood, Himalaya raintree, India teakwood, Indian dalbergia, Indian rosewood, Sisham, sissoo, East Indian rosewood, penny leaf tree, shisham, sisso
Name in Other Languages Arabic: دلبيرجيا سيسو
Assamese: Sisu (সিসু), Sissu, Konkani-Siso
Australia: Penny-leaf
Bengali:  Shishu, Shisu, Sisu, Sitral
Burmese: Kularr pitout (ကုလားပိတောက်)
Chinese:  Yìndù huáng tán (印度黄檀)
Czech: Dalbergia sissoo, dalbergie šišam, Amerimnon sissoo, dalbergia šišam
Dutch: Shisham, sissoo
English: Bombay blackwood, East Indian rosewood, Himalaya raintree, India teakwood, Indian dalbergia, Indian rosewood, Penny leaf tree, Penny-leaved tree, Sheesham, Shisham, Sissoo tree, Sisu, Sissoo, North Indian rosewood,
French:  Ebénier jaune, Palissandre de l’Inde, Palissandre des Indes, Sesham, Sissou, arbre de Shisham, palissandre d’Asie, arbre de Shisham            
German: Indisches Rosenholz, Java-Palisander, Ostindisches Jacaranda, Ostindischer Palisander, Ostindisches Palisanderholz, Ostindisches Rosenholz, sissoo, Rosenholzbaum, Palisanderholzbaum, Sissoo-Palisanderholzbaum
Gujarati: Sīsama (સીસમ), Sissom, Sis
Hebrew:    סיסם הודי , sisam haddi, סִיסָם הָדִּי, Indian rosewood 
Hindi:  Sheesham (शीशम), Sisam, Sissai, Sissu, agaru, biridi, errasissn, erra-sissu, gelte, gette, hiku, kara, karra, kattari, mukko-gette, nakkar, nukkukattai, padimi, shewa, shisam, shisha, shisham, shisham-bage, shishu, shisku, sihon, simsapa, sinsapa, sinsupa, sissi-utti, sissoo, sissua, sissu-karra, tahli, tali, tenach, yettle, Kala-shisham (काला शीशम), Vilayati Shisham (विलायती शीशम)
Hungarian: Shisham, Sissoo
Indonesia: Sonowaseso
Italian:  Palissandro di India, Palissandro d’India, sissoo
Japanese: Shissōshitan (シッソーシタン), Shissonoki (シッソノキ)
Javanese: Skuva, sonoswaseso
Kannada: Beete (ಬೀಟೆ), Sissoo, Shimshape (ಶಶಿಂಶಪೆ), Shimshupa (ಶಿಂಶುಪ), Biridi (ಬಿರಿಡಿ), Sīsaṁ (ಸೀಸಂ)
Konkani: Siso (सीसो)
Korean: Bug-indohwangdan (북인도황단)
Malay:  Sonoswaseso
Malayalam: Sinśapa (ശിംശപ) , Viitti (വീട്ടി), Iitti (ഈട്ടി), Karivittti (കരിവീട്ടി), Irupul (ഇരുപുല്), Iruvil (ഇരുവില്), Oivala-sesba
Manipuri: Sissu
Marathi: Sisau (शिसव), Kalarukh (काळारुख), Shisham (शीशम)
Nepali:  Sisham, Sisau (सिसौ), Sissau, Bandre shirin, Sissau
Oriya: Padimi, Sisu
Pakistan: Shisha, shisham, sihon, sissoo, sissoo, tahli
Persian: Jag,  شیشَم 
Portuguese: Sissó, sisu
Punjabi:  Shisham, Sissu, Ṭāhalī (ਟਾਹਲੀ),  ٹالی  Tali,  ٹاہلی   Tahli
Russian:  Dal’bergiia sissoo (Дальбергия сиссу)
Sanskrit:  Aguru, Shinshapa, Shinshapa (शिंशपा), Agurushinshupa, Dhira, Dhumrika (धुम्रिका), shaamp (शांप), pippala (पिप्पला), Yugapattēikā (युगपत्तेिका), Picchilā (पिच्छिला), shyaama  (श्यामा), Kr̥ṣṇasāra (कृष्णसारा)
Sindhi: ٽالهي
Spanish:  Palisandro de India, Sisu
Swedish:  Shesham
Tamil:  Gette, Nukku kattai, Sisuitti, Sisso, Yette, Totakatti (தோதகத்தி), Nukkam (நூக்கம்), Chichamaram (சிசே மரம்), Chiche
Tangkhul: Chingsoo
Telugu:  Iriḍi (ఇరిడి) , Iruguducettu (ఇరుగుడుచెట్టు), Errasisso, Errasissu
Thai:  Du-khaek, Pradu-khaek
Urdu: Shisham شِيشم,  ﺷﻴﺸﻢ Sheesham
Plant Growth Habit Fast growing, hardy, medium to large, deciduous, long-lived tree with a spreading crown and thick branches
Growing Climates Sands and gravels along watercourses, irrigated plantations, roadsides and canals, around farms and orchards as windbreaks, gregarious colonizer of landslips, hillsides, new embankments, grasslands, natural and planted forests, along forest margins, near streams and rivers, hammocks, canopy gaps, agricultural areas and disturbed sites
Soil Thrive on a variety of soils types, from dry to wet but is not particularly salt-tolerant
Plant Size Up to 25 m (82 ft) in height and 2 to 3 m (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) in diameter, but is usually smaller
Root Long taproot and numerous surface roots which produce suckers
Bark Thick, rough and grey, up to 2.5 cm (0.98 in) thick and has shallow, broad, longitudinal fissures exfoliating in irregular woody strips and scales
Leaf Pinnately compound, alternately arranged on twigs, and 15 cm long. The three to five leaflets are 3.5-9 cm long and 3-7 cm wide and is alternate, broadly ovate, conspicuously and abruptly cuspidate at the apex
Flowering season March – April
Flower Whitish to pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, up to1.5 cm (0.59 in) long and in dense clusters 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) in length. Calyx campanulate, corolla pale yellow, standard obovate-orbicular, with a long claw, wings oblong, keel obtuse, stamens 9, monadelphous, ovary long, style incurved.
Fruit Shape & Size Oblong, flat, thin, strap-like pods that are 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) long, 1 cm (0.39 in) wide, end rounded with a minute point, glabrous, reticulate against the seeds
Fruit Color Pale brown
Seed Kidney-shaped, variable in size about 8-10 mm long and 4-5.5 mm wide, pale brown, brown to brownish-black, reniform, compressed, with papery testa
Propagation By Seeds and by root suckers
Taste Acrid, Astringent, bitter
Plant Parts Used Roots, leaves, bark, Heartwood, Leaf
Season April–May
Health Benefits
  • Body Irritation
  • Stomach irritation
  • Eye disease
  • Fight with Fever
  • Cure anemia
  • Urinary Disease
  • Gonorrhea
  • Cure diarrhea
  • Treat Cholera
  • Hemorrhage
  • Wound
  • Leucorrhoea
  • Syphilis disease
  • Cystica Diseases

Leaves

Leaves are pinnately compound, alternately arranged on twigs, and 15 cm long. The three to five leaflets are 3.5-9 cm long and 3-7 cm wide and is alternate, broadly ovate, conspicuously and abruptly cuspidate at the apex, rounded at the base, entire, coriaceous, pubescent when young and glabrous when mature. They have short petiolules and broad; nearly truncate bases that form a slight angle. Leaves are shiny and succulent when young and become thicker with age. They are dark green, turning brown in the autumn, and drop between September and January. The terminal leaflet is larger than the others, and there are 8-12 pairs of veins in the leaflets.

Leaf arrangement Alternate
Leaf type Odd-pinnately compound; made up of 3 to 7 leaflets
Leaf margin Entire
Leaf shape Orbiculate, elliptic (oval)
Leaf venation Pinnate, brachidodrome
Leaf type and persistence Semi-evergreen
Leaf blade length 6 inches; leaflets are 3 inches
Leaf color Green on top, paler green underneath
Fall color No color change
Fall characteristic Not showy

 

Flower

Inflorescence of Indian rosewood is an axillary panicle 3.5-7.5 cm long, with small flowers. Young flower buds appear with the new leaves. Flowers are whitish to pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, up to 1.5 cm (0.59 in) long, and in dense clusters 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) in length. Calyx is campanulate, corolla is pale yellow, standard obovate-orbicular, with a long claw, wings oblong, keel obtuse, stamens 9, monadelphous, ovary long and style incurved. Flowering normally takes place in between March and April.

Flower color Yellowish or white
Flower characteristics Not showy; fragrant; emerges in clusters on axillary panicles
Flowering Spring and summer

 

Fruit

Fertile flowers are followed by oblong, flat, thin, strap-like pods that are 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) long, 1 cm (0.39 in) wide, end rounded with a minute point, glabrous, reticulate against the seeds, and usually 1-4 seeded. Seeds are kidney-shaped, variable in size about 8-10 mm long and 4-5.5 mm wide, pale brown, brown to brownish-black, reniform, compressed, with papery testa. In most locations, pods form in April, become full size by July and mature by November. After four years of growth, trees set seed annually.

Fruit shape Flat pod or pod-like, elongated
Fruit length 2 to 4 inches
Fruit covering Dry or hard
Fruit color Green to brown with maturity
Fruit characteristics Does not attract wildlife; not showy; fruit/leaves not a litter problem

 

Medicinal uses of Various Parts of Shisham

Plant Parts Preparation Problems
 

 

 

 

 

Leaf

Juice mixed with honey as eye

drop

Pain in eyes
Leaf juice in dose of 10-15ml

thrice a day

Jaundice, pus in urine
50-100ml decoction of

leaves, drink twice a day

Painful urination, boils, pimples, blood purification
Warmed and tied on affected

area for reducing swelling

Breast swelling
10-15 ml juice of leaves twice a

day

Pain in abdomen
Juice in dose of 10-15ml, twice in

a day

Abnormal bleeding

 in females

 

 

 

 

 

Bark Powder

3-6 grams with one cup

milk/water for 2-3 weeks

Body Pain
3-6 gm. decoction Gonorrhea
10 gm. sissoo bark boiled in 500ml of water till the volume reduces to half, mix the juice and consume for 40 days every morning Leprosy
Bark powder 1 kg cooked in 2 liter water, taken in dose of ten grams with milk 3 weeks Sciatica
Shisham oil Topical application Skin Diseases

 

Health benefits of Indian Rosewood (Shisham)

Shisham tree is quite beneficial for our health. Let us now know how many diseases can be taken with the use of Indian rosewood. The medicinal uses, quantities and methods of medicinal uses of Indian rosewood are listed below

1. Body Irritation

Many men or women complain of body irritation. In such a situation, there is a benefit from rosemary oil. Apply rosewood oil to any part of the body that is jealous. Burning of the body is cured.

2. Stomach irritation

You can treat stomach irritation with the use of Indian rosewood. Take the juice of 10-15 ml Indian rosewood leaves. Drink it and cure stomach irritation.

3. Eye disease

Regular use of Indian rosewood is beneficial in eye diseases such as eye irritation. Add honey to the juice of sisam ke patte. Putting 1-2 drops in the eyes provides relief from irritation.

4. Fight with Fever

Indian rosewood provides medicinal properties in all types of fever. Take 20 grams of Indian rosewood essence, water 320 ml and milk 160 ml. Mix them and cook in the milk. When the milk remains little, drink it 3 times a day. It cures fever.

5. Cure anemia

Anemia causes loss of blood in a person’s body. To cure anemia, take the juice of 10-15 ml Indian rosewood leaves. Taking it in the morning and evening is also beneficial in anemia.

6. Urinary Disease

Urine diseases like intermittent urination, burning sensation in urine, pain in urination, taking Indian rosewood are beneficial. Make a decoction of 20-40 ml Indian rosewood leaves. Drink it 3 times a day. It provides relief in problems like intermittent urination, burning sensation in urine, pain in urine, etc. Besides it, taking 10-20 ml decoction of leaves is also beneficial.

7. Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea disease is treated with the intake of Indian rosewood. Grind 8-10 leaves of Indian rosewood and 25 grams of sugar candy. Drink it in the morning and evening. Gonorrhea disease is cured by this.

8. Cure diarrhea

Indian rosewood can be used to prevent diarrhea. Take Indian rosewood leaves, kachnar leaves and barley. Mix all three and make a decoction. Now add ghee and milk as per 10-20 ml decoction.

9. Treat Cholera

The medicinal properties of Indian rosewood are beneficial in the treatment of cholera. Add 1 gram of Pippally, 1 gram of Marich and 500 mg of Cardamom in 5 grams of Indian rosewood leaves. Make a tablet of 500 mg by grinding it. Giving 2-2 tablets in the morning and evening cures cholera.

10. Hemorrhage

You can also use rosewood to prevent diarrhea. Take rosewood leaves, kachnar leaves and barley. Mix all three and make a decoction. Now add ghee and milk as per 10-20 ml decoction. It is cured by giving it through the anus.

11. Wound

Wound can also be cured with the benefit of Indian rosewood. Apply Indian rosewood oil on the wound. It heals wounds. For better benefits, consult an Ayurvedic doctor.

12. Leucorrhoea

Indian rosewood also has benefits in treating leucorrhea. Mix 8-10 leaves of Indian rosewood and 25 grams of sugar candy and consume it in the morning. It cures leucorrhea. Washing the vagina with the decoction of Indian rosewood is also beneficial in leucorrhea.

13. Syphilis disease

If you consume Indian rosewood for the treatment of syphilis, you get a lot of benefits. Take a decoction of 15-30 ml Indian rosewood leaves. It is beneficial in syphilis.

14. Cystica Diseases

Make a thick powder of 10 kg bark of rosewood and boil it in 25 liters of water. When the eighth part of the water remains, filter it in a cloth when it cools down. Then, thicken it by mounting it on the stove. Take 10 grams of this thick substance, and cook it in ghee and milk. Taking it 3 times a day for 21 consecutive days cures the disease of sciatica.

Traditional uses and benefits of Indian rosewood

  • Slender tree twigs are first chewed as a toothbrush and then split as a tongue cleaner.
  • In India, the wood has been used in Siddha medicine system for skin disorders and stomach-related issues.
  • Indian Rosewood oil encourages new cell growth, regenerate tissues, and helps minimize lines and wrinkles.
  • It helps balance both dry and oily skin.
  • It can prove useful against acne.
  • The bitter tasting leaves are a stimulant, and a compound made by boiling the leaves is used to treat gonorrhea.
  • Bark and wood extracts are used to alleviate vomiting, thirst and burning sensations.
  • Bark and wood are reported to encourage appetite, act as an aphrodisiac and induce abortion.
  • Roots provide an astringent used to treat inflammations and infections.
  • Branches are also combined with animal dung as a source of fuel.
  • Powdered wood leaves and seed oil are used in traditional medicine in India, especially to treat skin diseases.
  • Leaves are reportedly used as a stimulant and to treat gonorrhea and wounds.
  • Ayurveda prescribe the leaf juice for eye ailments.
  • Wood and bark for anal disorders, blood diseases, burning sensations, dysentery, dyspepsia, leucoderma, and skin ailments.
  • Yunani use the wood for blood disorders, burning sensations, eye and nose disorders, scabies, scalding urine, stomach problems, and syphilis.
  • The alterative wood is used in India for boils, eruptions, leprosy and nausea.
  • Finely ground paste of 8-10 leaves of sissoo and 25 gm of palm candy taken in the morning alleviates profuse menstruation.
  • 50-100 ml decoction of the leaves taken thrice in a day is useful in Painful micturition and to cure boils and pimples.
  • Leaves and bark are used as astringent in bleeding disorders.
  • Paste of leaves mixed with sweet oil is used topically in skin excoriation (scrapping, abrading of the skin).
  • The paste of 5 grams of tender leaves of shisham is taken with a cup of milk for 15-30 days.
  • Paste of leaves mixed with sweet oil is useful in skin excoriation such as scrapping and abrading.

Ayurvedic Health benefits of Indian rosewood

  • Low sperm count: The paste of 5 grams of tender leaves of Shisham is taken with a cup of milk for 15-30 days.
  • Sexual impotence in men: The paste of 5 grams of tender leaves of Shisham is taken with a cup of milk for 15-30 days.
  • Piles: The leaves of Shisham should be chewed twice a day for 2 weeks.
  • General debility: Take the fresh leaf juice orally along with sugar. 
  • Abscess: Apply the leaf paste topically.
  • Vomiting, piles, obesity / overweightness: 1-2 spoonful of leaf juice are taken with cow milk for 2-3 days.
  • Pain in eyes: Sissoo leaves juice is mixed with honey and used as eye drop for eye pain.
  • Pain in the body: Dried bark powder is given in a dose of 3-6 grams, with one cup milk/water at night for 2-3 weeks.
  • Diarrhea: Take about 100 grams fresh clean leaves of Shisham and boil in 500 ml water for fifteen minutes. Filter and collect the filtrate. This should be given in dose 100 ml (for adult) or 10-15ml (for children), three times a day, for 3-4 days.
  • Breast swelling: The leaves are warmed and tied at affected area for reducing swelling.
  • Pain in abdomen: Wash and extract 10-15 ml juice of leaves and take twice a day.
  • Gonorrhea: The bark powder in a dose of 3-6gm Or decoction of the leaves is given.
  • Jaundice, pus in urine: The leaves juice is given in a dose of 10-15 ml, thrice a day.
  • Painful urination: Prepare decoction of leaves and drink 50-100 ml of it, twice a day.
  • Leprosy: Take 10gm Shisham bark and boil in 500gm of water and till the volume reduces to half. Mix the juice of the bark and consume for forty days every morning.
  • Abnormal bleeding in females: The leaves juice is given in a dose of 10-15 ml, twice a day.
  • Heavy bleeding in period, leucorrhoea: Prepare paste of leaves (8- 10) and add 25gm of palm candy and take two times a day.
  • Skin diseases: Topically apply Shisham oil at affected body area.
  • Sciatica: For sciatica, bark of the tree is used. Bark powder 1 kg is cooked in 2 liter water, till volume reduces to 1/8th. Then water is filtered and the paste is again cooked till it thickens. This thick bark preparation should be taken in a dose of ten grams, with milk for 3 weeks, thrice a day.
  • Leprosy: Drinking Shisham leaves decoction with honey, in the morning for a month provides great benefit in leprosy.
  • Excessive sweating: Having juice of 15-20 Shisham leaves for 15 days with 10 grams of sugar in the morning reduces over sweating.
  • Menorrhagia: Giving 10-15 leaves of Shisham juice twice a day with whole sugar is beneficial in excessive bleeding.

Other Facts

  • In India and Pakistan, Indian rosewood is generally grown in block plantations established under irrigation or in floodplains.
  • It is grown mainly as a high value timber, but also for fuel wood.
  • Secondary products include foliage as a fodder, traditional medicines, and lubricant oil from the heartwood.
  • Trunks yield a prized cabinet wood for fine furniture.
  • Indian rosewood is used as firewood, timber, poles, posts, tool handles, fodder, and erosion control and as a windbreak.
  • Oil is extracted from the seed and tannin from the bark.
  • Indian rosewood is the state tree of the Indian state of Punjab.
  • Its wood is used for the making furniture, doors, windows, ship floors, plywood, skis, musical instruments, carvings etc.
  • Rosewood is often used in the martial art weaponry, particularly as the shaft of spears and in the gun staves.
  • Its oil is used in Perfumes.
  • A non-drying oil which is suitable as a lubricant for heavy machinery can be obtained from the heartwood.
  • Wood, roots and leaves have shown insecticidal activity.
  • There are about 50,000 to 60,000 seeds per kilogram or 18,000 seeds in one kg of dry pods.
  • Seed production starts when the trees are 3-4 years old.

Prevention and Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product’s label.

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

Indian rosewood cannot withstand fire. Even light fire kills the foliage and severe fires may kill trees outright, thus fire could be considered as a suitable means of control. Foliage is also highly palatable, and seedlings and young trees also sensitive to browsing damage by domestic livestock and free-ranging herbivores, making grazing another possible means of control.

Physical/mechanical control

There are no records of specific mechanical control methods; however it is assumed that cutting alone will be ineffective due to the vigorous coppicing and ability to reproduce from severed roots via suckering.

Biological control

There are no records of attempts at selecting potential bio-control agents having been made. However, noting the large number of specific pests from the native range, it may appear that they are many potentially suitable candidates should such an evaluation commence.

Chemical control

Picloram as a cut stump, basal bark or stem injection has been used in Australia, and basal bark treatments have also been used in Florida, USA.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26596#null

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/dalbergia_sissoo.htm

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=13169

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/17808

https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/st227

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/DAGSI

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/ild-1870

https://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/Dalbergia_sissoo_(Indian_Rosewood).htm

https://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/264596

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Shisham.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalbergia_sissoo

https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Dalbergia_sissoo.html

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