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The small intestine secretes the hormone vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in reaction to ingested food. Glucose levels are stabilized, and new intestinal cells are encouraged to form, thanks to this hormone’s presence. VIP is involved in immune system function and also has anti-inflammatory properties. Two different peptides, VIP1 and VIP2, are derived from VIP and have distinct purposes. VIP1 controls blood sugar levels, while VIP2 stimulates cell growth and repair.
VIP has been proven to have neuroprotective benefits and involvement in the digestive system. Evidence suggests that it may boost memory and prevent decline with age. Improved blood sugar management, digestive health, and cognitive function are possible advantages of VIP supplementation. Nonetheless, further study is required to verify these outcomes.
The neuropeptide known as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or VPAC1 has a wide range of physiological roles. Two members of the secretin family of hormones, PACAP and VIP, have been isolated from invertebrates. The GI tract, the pancreas, and the uterus have the most significant quantities of VIP, while it is present throughout the body. Food, stress, and inflammation are all factors that cause enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal system to release VIP. In addition to controlling blood sugar, vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates the development and repair of intestinal cells. It has been hypothesized that VIP’s neuroprotective properties help boost cognitive performance and shield the brain from the deterioration that comes with aging.
However, additional study is required to validate the advantages of VIP. VIP, or vasoactive intestinal peptide, is a neuropeptide that affects the central and peripheral neural systems (PNS). Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has structural similarities with VIP. Two members of the secretin family of hormones, PACAP and VIP, have been isolated from invertebrates. The GI tract, the pancreas, and the uterus have the most significant quantities of VIP, while it is present throughout the body. Food, stress, and inflammation are all factors that cause enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal system to release VIP. An essential function of vasoactive intestinal peptide is to promote cell growth and repair in the gut and maintain stable blood sugar levels. It is believed that VIP may boost cognitive performance and protect the brain from age-related decline because of its neuroprotective properties.
Receptor for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIPR1)
VIPR1 interacts with vasoactive intestinal peptides, triggering an inflammatory response (VIP). VIP binds to VIPR1, activating the receptor and triggering a chain reaction of subsequent events. The brain, intestine, and immune system are just a few tissues expressing VIPR1.
One of the many consequences that activating VIPR1 has been shown to have is:
- Maintaining healthy glucose levels
- Increased cell proliferation and repair
- Reduces inflammation
Prophylactic Effects on the Brain
VIPR1 has therapeutic promise in treating diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s, among others.
Memory loss, mental deterioration, and ultimately mortality result from Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative brain ailment. Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease have revealed that VIP has neuroprotective benefits and enhances cognitive performance.
The therapy with VIP has been proven to decrease amyloid-beta accumulation, enhance learning and memory, and prevent neuronal death. These results point to VIPR1 activation as a therapeutic target for treating Alzheimer’s.
Several forms of cancer, including ovarian, pancreatic, and breast cancer, have been demonstrated to respond favorably to VIP’s anti-cancer properties. VIP therapy’s benefits are inhibiting tumor development, enhancing apoptosis (cell death), and decreasing cancer cell dissemination. Given these results, activating VIPR1 has been proposed as a therapeutic target for cancer.
When blood sugar levels consistently exceed ordinary, a person is diagnosed with diabetes. In animal models of diabetes, VIP has been demonstrated to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease blood sugar levels. The development of diabetes in genetically fat mice was also halted by VIP therapy. These results indicate activating VIPR1 may be a promising therapeutic target for treating diabetes.
The Roles of VIP and VIPR1 in Disease and Wellness
The physiologic roles of VIP and its receptor, VIPR1, are extensive. The benefits of VIP on glucose regulation, gastrointestinal health, cognitive performance, and immune function have all been shown.
Some medical disorders, such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer’s, may benefit from targeting VIPR1.
Receptor 2 for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptides (VIPR2)
The small intestine contains a protein called vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIP2). By binding to VIP, VIP2 aids in controlling the protein’s activity. The small intestine cannot operate without VIP2. Increased intestinal inflammation and cell death are seen in VIP2 knockout mice.
The neuroprotective benefits of VIP2 have also been shown. The research found that persistent stress caused more brain damage in VIP2 knockout mice. It has been established that VIP supplementation raises gastrointestinal VIP2 levels. Because of this, we may better understand why VIP supplementation may be helpful.
A Comparison between VPAC1 and VPAC2
Proteins similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1 (VPAC1) are widely distributed throughout the nervous and digestive systems. Through binding to VIP, VPAC1 aids in controlling the protein’s activity. VPAC1 has a role in the brain’s ability to learn and remember. One research found that mice missing VPAC1 have trouble remembering and learning new locations.
VPAC1 is involved in motility and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent research found that VIP therapy enhanced VPAC1 levels in the colons of IBD mice. This aspect supports the hypothesis that VIP may help mitigate intestinal inflammation. VIP activity is modulated partly by VPAC2, which binds to the protein.
Mice lacking the gene for VPAC2 exhibited behavioral changes indicative of anxiety and memory loss. This source provides evidence that VPAC2 is involved in the control of emotional and mental states.
Strategies for Boosting Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Levels
The levels of VIP in the body may be raised by many methods, including:
- VIP levels in the brain have risen in response to frequent exercise.
- Getting a good night’s rest; sleep contributes to health and well-being in many ways. Inflammation and lower VIP levels have been linked to a lack of sleep.
- Reducing stress levels may increase VIP levels and protect the body from the detrimental consequences of stress.