Facts about Winter Jasmine

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Winter Jasmine Quick Facts
Name: Winter Jasmine
Scientific Name: Jasminum nudiflorum
Origin China. It is reportedly naturalized in France and in scattered locations in the United States (Texas, Oklahoma, Georgia, Tennessee, Maryland and New Jersey).
Colors Green when young turning to black as they mature
Shapes Small two-lobed black berry
Health benefits Dermatosis, coryza, Nasal Hemorrhage, infections, wounds, toothaches, stomatitis, headaches, kidney stone and burn treatment
Jasminum nudiflorum popularly known as winter jasmine or bare-flowered jasmine is a slender, deciduous shrub belonging to the olive family (Oleaceae). The plant is native to China. It is found within many Provinces of China, (including Guangxi (Gansu), Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang (also referred to as Tibet) and Yunnan. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental and is reportedly naturalized in France and in scattered locations in the United States (Texas, Oklahoma, Georgia, Tennessee, Maryland and New Jersey). The Chinese nickname “Yingchunhua”, in English “Welcome Spring Blossom”, describes the winter jasmine succinctly, as it is one of the plants that give us the first flowers of the year. Some of the well-known popular common names of the plant are winter-flowering Jasmin, winter jasmine and bare-flowered jasmine.

The name “Jasmine” is Medieval Latin for the Persian name Yasmin or Yasamin. In addition, specific name “nudiflorum” refers to “naked flower.” This plant was first discovered and collected in China by Robert Fortune. Today, as it has been in China for ages, winter jasmine is cultivated as an ornamental plant in parks and gardens because of its attractive flowers that appear in winter. Even today the girls of Tuscany carry a jasmine branch in their bridal bouquet in memory of their capable ancestor. It is believed that this will bring happiness to the bridegroom above all. Winter jasmine is best known as an ornamental winter-bloomer in gardens around the world. Some great uses for winter jasmine are mounding shrub-forms or as a thick ground cover. People also enjoy winter jasmine draped over retaining walls or climbing up arbors and trellises.

Winter Jasmine Facts

Name Winter Jasmine
Scientific Name Jasminum nudiflorum
Native China. It is found within many Provinces of China, (including Guangxi (Gansu), Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang (also referred to as Tibet) and Yunnan
Common Names Winter-Flowering Jasmin, Winter jasmine
Name in Other Languages Albanian: Jasemin
Azerbaijani: Çılpаqçiçək jаsmin
Bulgarian: Ran khrishchel (ран хрищел)              
Catalan: Englantina
Chinese: Ying chun hua (迎春花)
Croatian: Pravi jasmin   
Czech: Jasmín nahokvětý
Danish: Vinter-Jasmin
Dutch: Winterjasmijn
English: Winter Jasmine, winter-flowering jasmine
Finnish: Talvijasmiini
French: Jasmin d’hiver, Jasmin à fleurs nues
German: Winter-Jasmin
Hungarian: Téli jázmin
Italian: Gelsomino a giori nudi, Gelsomino d’inverno, gelsomino a fiori nudi
Japanese: Obai (オウバイ)       
Korean: Yeong chun hwa (영춘화)
Malayalam: Jāsmīnaṁ nuḍiphlēāṟaṁ (ജാസ്മീനം നുഡിഫ്ലോറം)
Norwegian: Vintersjasmin
Persian: یاسمن زمستانه
Polish: Jaśmin nagokwiatowy, jaśminek nagokwiatowy
Portuguese: Jasmim-amarelo, Jasminum-amarelo, jasmim-de-são-josé, jasmineiro-do-inverno
Russian: Zhasmin golotsvetkovyy (жасмин голоцветковый), zhasmin golotsvetnyy (жасмин голоцветный)
Spanish: Jazmin, jazmin de San José, jazmín Amarillo, jazmín de invierno              
Swedish: Vinterjasmin
Ukrainian: Zhasmin holotsvityy (жасмін голоцвітий)
Welsh: Jasmin y Gaeaf
Plant Growth Habit Slender, deciduous, broad-growing, relatively flat-growing perennial shrub
Growing Climates Thickets, ravines and slopes
Soil Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a good soil and a sunny position but succeeds in shade, including on a north facing wall. Tolerates very poor soils, whether acid or alkaline. Tolerates urban pollution
Plant Size 4 feet (1.2 m) in height with a width of 7 feet when unsupported. When it grows on a trellis, this vine can reach sizes of up to 15 feet (4.6 m)
Root Shallow roots
Stem Stems are square, 2mm wide, green and can be fairly effective in the winter landscape; the green stands out in contrast to the grays and browns
Bark Barks are green during the first year, turning gray to red brown, thin and finely scaly and have a smooth surface
Twigs The young twigs are dark green in color, becoming brown with age. The twigs are glabrous and square in cross section. Stem tips easily root when in contact with the soil
Leaf Opposite, composed of three leaflets borne on a common stalk about 1⁄4 in. long. Leaflets are oval-oblong, 1⁄2 to 1 in. long, one-third to half as wide, tapered at both ends, deep lustrous green, not toothed, but furnished at the margin when young with tiny hairs
Flowering season November to February
Flower Solitary, bright yellow in color, and salver form in shape with five to six wavy petals. They are 3⁄4 to 1 in. diameter
Fruit Shape & Size Small two-lobed black berry
Fruit Color Green when young turning to black as they mature
Propagation By semi-ripe cuttings, Layering

Plant Description

Winter jasmine is a slender, deciduous, broad-growing, relatively flat-growing perennial shrub that normally grows about 4 feet (1.2 m) in height with a width of 7 feet when unsupported. It will take five to ten years to reach these heights. When it grows on a trellis, this vine can reach sizes of up to 15 feet (4.6 m). The plant normally grows in thickets, ravines and slopes, at altitudes between 800 and 4500 m above sea level. The plant grows well in heavy clay soils. It prefers a good soil and a sunny position but succeeds in shade, including on a north facing wall. It tolerates very poor soils, whether acid or alkaline. It tolerates urban pollution. These are plants that climb up other plants, trellises, walls or even rocks with the help of long, sparse shoots, but do not form roots.

Stem

Stems are square, 2mm wide, green and can be fairly effective in the winter landscape; the green stands out in contrast to the grays and browns. The young twigs are dark green in color, becoming brown with age. The twigs are glabrous and square in cross section. Stem tips easily root when in contact with the soil. Barks are green during the first year, turning gray to red brown, thin and finely scaly and have a smooth surface.

Leaves

Leaves are opposite, composed of three leaflets borne on a common stalk about 1⁄4 in. long. Leaflets are oval-oblong, 1⁄2 to 1 in. long, one-third to half as wide, tapered at both ends, deep lustrous green, not toothed, but furnished at the margin when young with tiny hairs. They have entire margins and palmate venation. They turn an attractive yellow in autumn. The leaves have a tomentose surface.

Flowers & Fruits

Flowers are solitary, bright yellow in color, and salver form in shape with five to six wavy petals. They are 3⁄4 to 1 in. diameter, produced from November to February. They are produced on stalks 1⁄4 in. long, clothed with several small, narrow green bracts. Corolla is tubular at the base and nearly 1 in. long, spreading into six divisions. Calyx-lobes are linear and pointed. The flowers are not fragrant. The plants flower on last year’s shoots. They are hermaphroditic; pollination takes place by allogamy through animals. Fertile flowers are followed by small two-lobed black berry.

Traditional uses and benefits of Winter Jasmine

  • In northern India, the bark of winter jasmine has been used as a burn treatment.
  • People use it to treat dermatosis, coryza, and Nasal Hemorrhage.
  • They also can treat infections, wounds, toothaches, and stomatitis.
  • People use their roots to remove dark shades, headaches, and kidney stone release.

Other Facts

  • It is a good soil stabilizer for steep banks, succeeding in shady positions.
  • The sprawling branches make this a good plant for ground cover, the plants should be spaced about 1.8 meters apart each way.
  • Winter jasmine is said to be a symbol of elegance and grace, It is also the flower of Epiphany, and is dedicated to the Virgin Mary in the Christian calendar.
  • It is used to make perfumes, cosmetics, and medicines.
  • Women also wear it on their heads.

References:

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=20666

https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Jasminum+nudiflorum

https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a152

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/28385

https://en.hortipedia.com/Jasminum_nudiflorum

http://floraofalabama.org/Plant.aspx?id=5342

https://landscapeplants.oregonstate.edu/plants/jasminum-nudiflorum

http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=958

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-351463

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasminum_nudiflorum

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/IASNU

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=503237#null

https://plants.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=JANU

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