Facts about Callery Pear ~ Pyrus calleryana

Google+ Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr +

Callery Pear Quick Facts
Name: Callery Pear
Scientific Name: Pyrus calleryana
Origin China South-Central, China Southeast, Vietnam, Taiwan, Japan, China North-Central
Colors Green when young turning to olive-brown to tan in color speckled with tiny russet dots as they mature
Shapes Spherical to slightly oblong, 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) in diameter, brown to yellow-brown, white to tan dotted
Taste Bitter
Pyrus calleryana, popularly called Callery pear is an upright-branched ornamental tree belonging to Rosaceae (Rose family). The plant is native to China South-Central, China Southeast, Vietnam, Taiwan, Japan and China North-Central. It is most commonly known for its cultivar ‘Bradford’, widely planted throughout the United States and increasingly regarded as an invasive species. Bradford pear and Callery pear are the most popular common names of Pyrus calleryana. The species is named after the Italian-French Sinologue Joseph-Marie Callery (1810–1862), a French missionary, who discovered and collected this plant in China in 1858 and sent specimens of the tree to Europe. Bradford has been widely planted since the 1950s in residential and commercial areas in many parts of the U.S. Notwithstanding its beautiful form; over time it has become apparent that Bradford has inherent and significant structural weaknesses.

Callery pears are remarkably resistant to disease or fire blight though some cultivars such as ‘Bradford’ are particularly susceptible to storm damage and are regularly disfigured or even killed by strong winds, ice storms, heavy snow, or limb loss due to their naturally rapid growth rate.

Callery Pear Facts

Name Callery Pear
Scientific Name Pyrus calleryana
Native China South-Central, China Southeast, Vietnam, Taiwan, Japan, China North-Central
Common Names Bradford pear, Callery pear
Name in Other Languages Chinese: Dou li, Mamenashi (豆梨)       
Danish: Kina-Pære
English: Bradford pear, Callery pear
Finnish: Kiinanpäärynä
French: Poirier de Chine
Japanese: Mame-nashi (マメナシ)
Polish: Grusza drobnoowocowa
Portuguese: Pereira-comum-da-china
Swedish: Litet kinapäron
Plant Growth Habit Medium-sized ornamental deciduous tree
Growing Climates Slopes, plains, mixed valley forests, thickets, stream sides, woodland edges, bottomland forests, old field fencerows, roads, rights-of-ways, along the margins of understory along creek banks, degraded open woodlands, woodland borders and fallow fields
Plant Size Up to 60 ft. (18 m) in height and 2 ft. (0.6 m) in diameter
Bark Bark is light brown to reddish-brown and smooth with lenticels in younger plant turning to greyish-brown with shallowly furrowed and scaly ridges with maturity
Twigs Twigs are thorn less in cultivated trees, but in wild types (including trees that develop from sprouts of a tree that was felled), the twigs end in thorns. Twigs are reddish-brown to grey with large, ovate, fuzzy terminal buds about 0.5 to 1.5 centimeters in length on branch tips and spur shoots.
Leaf Leaves are alternate, simple, generally oval, to 3 inches long, with rounded teeth, glossy green, turning orange, gold, red, pink, and/or purple in fall
Flowering season April to May
Flower Large clusters of brilliantly white, 5-petaled flowers, 1 inch (2.5 cm) across with many jutting, maroon-tipped anthers, appearing before leaves
Fruit Shape & Size Spherical to slightly oblong, 0.5 in. (1.3 cm) in diameter, brown to yellow-brown, white to tan dotted, resembles a tiny pear, very bitter
Fruit Color Green when young turning to olive-brown to tan in color speckled with tiny russet dots as they mature
Propagation By seed and root suckers
Taste Bitter
Season September to October

Plant Description

Callery pears are a medium-sized ornamental deciduous tree that normally grows about 60 ft. (18 m) in height and 2 ft. (0.6 m) in diameter. The crown shape is variable, depending on the cultivar, ranging from broadly ovate to pyramidal to columnar. The branches range from glabrous to sometimes densely pubescent. Terminal buds of the species are densely pubescent and much larger than those of other Pyrus species, often reaching 12-15 mm in length. The plant is found growing in slopes, plains, mixed valley forests, thickets, stream sides, woodland edges, bottomland forests, old field fencerows, roads, rights-of-ways, along the margins of understory along creek banks, degraded open woodlands, woodland borders and fallow fields.

Stem

Twigs initially hairy, stubby, and tipped by a sharp thorn in escaped plants, being longer branched with few thorns in cultured, planted varieties. Terminal and lateral bud scales loose, gray-hairy and elongated to 0.5 inch (1.2 cm). Twigs are thorn less in cultivated trees, but in wild types (including trees that develop from sprouts of a tree that was felled), the twigs end in thorns. Twigs are reddish-brown to grey with large, ovate, fuzzy terminal buds about 0.5 to 1.5 centimeters in length on branch tips and spur shoots. Bark is light brown to reddish-brown and smooth with lenticels in younger plant turning to greyish-brown with shallowly furrowed and scaly ridges with maturity. Stems and boles often spotted with gray and green lichens.

Leaves

Leaves are alternate, often tufted on short branchlets. They are initially circular and hairy, maturing to glossy and ovate or slightly cordate with a tapering tip, 1.5 to 3.5 inches (4 to 9 cm) long and wide, leathery with finely crenate and wavy margins sometimes having a pronounced tip. Leaves are dark green above and light green below, becoming brilliantly red, yellow, to maroon in fall. Thin petioles 1 to 2 inches (2.5 to 5 cm) long with thin stipules that shed early. Leaf margins are toothed and the base of the leaf is rounded.

In summer, the shining foliage is dark green and very smooth, and in autumn the leaves commonly turn brilliant colors, ranging from yellow and orange to more commonly red, pink, purple, and bronze. However, since the color often develops very late in autumn, the leaves may be killed by a hard frost before full color can develop.

Leaf arrangement Alternate
Leaf type Simple
Leaf margin Crenate; serrate
Leaf shape Ovate
Leaf venation Pinnate; reticulate
Leaf type and persistence Deciduous
Leaf blade length 2 to 4 inches; less than 2 inches
Leaf color dark green and shiny on top, paler green underneath
Fall color Orange; purple; red; yellow
Fall characteristic Showy

 

Flowers

The plant produces large clusters of brilliantly white, 5-petaled flowers, 1 inch (2.5 cm) across with many jutting, maroon-tipped anthers, appearing before leaves, tufted often from mid thorn, covering trees to make conspicuous invaders in early spring. Flowers normally emit an unpleasant odor and can cause allergic sinus reactions. Flowering occurs early in the spring (April to May) before the leaves emerge.

Flower color white or tinged with pink
Flower characteristics very showy; has an aroma that some find unpleasant; emerges in clusters on 3” long cymes

 

Fruit and seeds

Fertile flowers are followed by persistent clusters of small pears (pomes), 0.3 to 0.5 inch (8 to 12 mm) long and wide. The fruits are initially green ripening to tan then maroon with numerous surface speckles, dangling on thin, 1-inch (2.5 cm) long stems. They are fleshy, tart but edible, containing 2 to 6 maroon seeds and numerous stone cells. Fruits are hard, almost woody, until softened by frost, after which they are readily taken by birds, which disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Fruit shape Round
Fruit length < .5 inch
Fruit covering Dry or hard
Fruit color Brown; tan
Fruit characteristics Attracts birds; attracts squirrels and other mammals; inconspicuous and not showy; no significant litter problem; persistent on the tree

 

Few Facts about Callery Pear

  • This species is widely used as a rootstock, especially for cultivars of Pyrus pyrifolia.
  • The wood of this species is hard and close-grained, and is sometimes used for making furniture and stools.
  • Pear wood is also among those preferred for preparing woodcuts for printing, either end-grained for small works or side-grained for larger.
  • Callery pear has been used as rootstock for grafting such pear cultivars as Comice, Bosc, or Seckel, and especially for Nashi.
  • The wood is used for making woodwind instruments and furniture.

Callery Pear Management Info

Preventative measures: Swearingen et al. recommend not planting Pyrus calleryana. The root stock of grafted plants can sprout and reproduce by crossing with the upper scion. Sucker growth should be promptly removed to prevent possible cross pollination with the scion.

Physical

Pull up seedlings by hand or with a gardening tool which helps capture the roots. Cut down trees and immediately treat entire surface area of cut stump with a systemic herbicide such as concentrated glyphosate or triclopyr, following all labeling instructions, to prevent resprouting. Adult trees can be girdled in spring or summer by cutting through the bark around the entire circumference of the tree at the base of the tree. Mowing is not effective because of likelihood of resprouting.

Chemical

Treat entire surface area of any cut stumps immediately with a systemic herbicide such as concentrated glyphosate or triclopyr, following all labeling instructions, to prevent resprouting. To prevent fruiting of adult trees, spray with ethephon during full bloom; only 95% effective.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=504706#null

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/pyrus_calleryana.htm

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=30463

https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pyrus+calleryana

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=c136

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=pyca80

https://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=10957

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/46188

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/pyrus-calleryana-profile/

http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200011181

https://texasinvasives.org/plant_database/detail.php?symbol=PYCA80

http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1389

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/rjp-6009

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrus_calleryana

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/PYUCA

http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/pyrcalb.pdf

https://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/trees/plants/callery_pear.htm

77%
77%
Awesome

Comments

comments

Share.

Comments are closed.

DISCLAIMER

The content and the information in this website are for informational and educational purposes only, not as a medical manual. All readers are urged to consult with a physician before beginning or discontinuing use of any prescription drug or under taking any form of self-treatment. The information given here is designed to help you make informed decisions about your health. It is not intended as a substitute for any treatment that may have been prescribed by your doctor. If you are under treatment for any health problem, you should check with your doctor before trying any home remedies. If you are taking any medication, do not take any vitamin, mineral, herb, or other supplement without consulting with your doctor. If you suspect that you have a medical problem, we urge you to seek competent medical help. The Health Benefits Times, authors, publisher and its representatives disclaim responsibility for any adverse effects resulting directly or indirectly from information contained in this website www.healthbenefitstimes.com