Traditional uses and benefits of Coat Button Plant

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Coat Button Quick Facts
Name: Coat Button
Scientific Name: Tridax procumbens
Origin Mexico, Central America and tropical South America
Colors Dark brown to black
Shapes Hard achene narrowly obconical, and 2.0-2.5 mm long, with 15-20 patent, 0.12-0.24 inches (3-6 mm) long
Health benefits Good for colds, inflammation, vaginitis, stomach pains, diarrhea, fever, cough, back ache, epilepsy, bronchial catarrh, ulcers, anal fistula, and hemorrhoids
Tridax procumbens commonly known as Coat Button is a prostrate herbaceous plant, from the Asteraceae / Compositae, the sunflower family. The plant is native to Mexico, Central America (i.e. Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) and tropical South America (i.e. Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru) but it has been introduced to tropical, subtropical, and mild temperate regions worldwide. It is listed as a noxious weed in the United States and has pest status in nine states. Since ancient times, this species has been used in Ayurveda in India. Coat buttons, coatbuttons, Mexican daisy, tridax, tridax daisy, wild daisy, dagad-phul are some of the popular common names of the Coat Button. The plant is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine.

Coat Button Facts

Name Coat Button
Scientific Name Tridax procumbens
Native Mexico, Central America (i.e. Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) and tropical South America (i.e. Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru)
Common Names Coat buttons, coatbuttons, Mexican daisy, tridax, tridax daisy, wild daisy, dagad-phul
Name in Other Languages Assamese: Kurakuri bana (কুৰকুৰি বন), putali bana (পুতলী বন), tridhara (ত্রিধারা)
Australia: Tridax daisy
Bengali: Tridhara (ত্রিধারা), kanaiya (কানাইয়া), kanaphuli (কানফুলি), paradesi bhanara (পরদেশি ভাঙড়া), tridaksa (ত্রিদক্ষ), tridhara (ত্রিধারা)
Brazilin: Erva de touro
Burmese: Mive sok ne-gya
Central America: Hierba del toro
Chinese: Chángbǐng jú (長柄菊), yǔ máng jú (羽芒菊), Kotobukigiku
Colombia: Cadillo chisaca
Cuban: Romerillo de loma, Romerillo
Dagbani: Alepele bindi
English: Coat-buttons, Tridax daisy, Tridax, dagad-phul, wild daisy, Mexican daisy
Fijian: Tubua leka, tumbualeka, voti
French: Herbe calille
German: Niederliegender Dreibiß
Ghana: Nantwi bini
Gujarati: Ghaburi (ઘાબુરી), pardeshi bhangaro (પરદેશી ભાંગરો)
Hindi: Ghamra, Khal Muriya, Tal Muriya, kanphuli (कानफुली), kumra (कुमढ़ा)
Indonesian: Gletang, Gletangan, Sidowlo, Tar sentaran, cemondelan, glentangan, gobesan, katumpang, londotan, orang aring
Irula: Mukuthi poo, Railpoo
Jamaican: Bakenbox
Japanese: Kotobukigiku (コトブキギク)
Javanese: Songgolangit, Sidawala
Kachchhi: Vilati bhangaro (વિલાતી ભંગરો)
Kannada: Jayanthi, Addike soppu (ಅಡ್ಡಿಕೆಸೊಪ್ಪು) Attige soppu (ಅಟ್ಟಿಗೆ ಸೊಪ್ಪು), Gabbu sanna shaavanthi (ಗಬ್ಬು ಸಣ್ಣ ಶಾವಂತಿ), Netta gabbu shaavanthi (ನೆಟ್ಟ ಗಬ್ಬು ಶಾವಂತಿ), Teeke (ತೀಕೆ), Sanna Gida
Madagascar: Anganiay
Malayalam: Chiravanak, cheeravanakk (ചിരവനാക്ക്), kumminippachcha (കുമ്മിണിപ്പച്ച), kurikutticheera (കുറികൂട്ടിചീര), mukutti pu (മുകുത്തി പൂ), muriyampachchila (മുറിയമ്പച്ചില), otiyacheera (ഒടിയൻ‌ചീര), reyipuchcheti (റെയിൽ‌പൂച്ചെടി), sanipuv (സാനിപൂവ്), telukkutti (തേളുക്കുത്തി), Railpoochedi, Thelkuthi, Odiyancheera, Sanipoovu
Malaysian: Kanching baju
Marathi: Kambarmodi (कंबरमोडी), bandukiche phul (बंदुकीचे फूल), dagadi paala (दगडी पाला), ekdandi (एकदांडी), jakhamjudi (जखमजुडी), kambarmodi (कंबरमोडी), tantani
Mexico: Flor amarilla
Myanmar: Mive sok ne-gya
Nepali: Husure jhaar (हुसुरे झार), kurakure jhaar (कुरकुरे झार), putalee jhaar (पुतली झार), ramne jhaar (रम्ने झार)
Nigerian: Igbalobe, Muwagun, Muriyam pachila, Jayanti, Vettukaaya-thala
Odia: ବିଶଲ୍ଯ କରଣୀ bishalya karani
Portuguese: Erva-de-touro
Rajasthani: Kagla ri mehndi (कागला री मेहंदी)
Russian: Trydaks lezhachyy (тридакс лежачий)
Sanskrit: Jayanti veda (जयन्ती वेद), kshudra sevantika (क्षुद्र सेवन्तिका)
Santali: ᱛᱨᱤᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ
Spanish: Cadillo chisaca, flor amarilla, hierba del toro, panquica, rosella, mata gusano, romerillo de loma
Swedish: Tridax
Tamil: Vettukaaya, Puntu (வெட்டுக்காயப் பூண்டு), kinarruppacan (கிணற்றுப்பாசான்), vettukkaya-p-puntu (வெட்டுக்காயப் பூண்டு), Thata poodu, Kenathuppoondu, Seruppadithalai, Seruppadithazhai, Vettukkaaya-thalai
Taiwan: Kotobuki-giku
Telugu: Gaddi chemanthi (గడ్డి చామంతి)
Thai: Tin tukkae (ตีนตุ๊กแก)
Tulu: Nela sevanthige (ನೆಲ ಸೆವಂತಿಗೆ)
Urdu: Zagh mai hayat
USA: Tridax daisy
Vietnamese: Cúc mui
Plant Growth Habit Semi-prostrate, spreading, herbaceous,  perennial, procumbent annual herb
Growing Climates Found in annual crops, roadsides, pastures, fallow land, meadows, waste grounds,  railways,  riverbanks, dikes and dunes and occasionally in lawns, perennial crops and nurseries
Plant Size 8-30 inches (20-75 cm) long
Root Strong taproot
Stem Cylindrical, solid and highly hispid, covered with multicellular hairs of 1 mm, tuberculate at the base
Leaf Opposite, simple, fleshy, pubescent, and carried by a concave petiole, 0.8-2.5 cm long. Leaf blades are thick, soft and dark green. The lamina is oval to lanceolate, 2.5 to 6 cm long and 2 to 5 cm wide, base attenuate in corner and with strongly and irregularly serrated margin
Flowering season May to December
Flower The flower is tubular, yellow centered white or yellow flowers with three-toothed ray florets. They are about 0.4-0.6 inches (1-1.5 cm) wide, and held on a 4-12 inches (10-30 cm) long stalk.
Fruit Shape & Size Hard achene, narrowly obconical, and 2.0-2.5 mm long, with 15-20 patent, 0.12-0.24 inches (3-6 mm) long, rather stiff, feathered, unequal bristles and having a feathery, plume like white pappus at one end.
Fruit Color Dark brown to black,
Seed Numerous, small with tuft of silky hairs on one side for wind dispersal.
Plant Parts Used Whole plant, Leaves, stems, flowers
Propagation By seed
Culinary Uses
  • The leaves of Bakenbox are edible and they are cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
  • The leaves are also used as feed for poultry.
Precautions
  • This plant should be handled carefully since it may sometimes cause skin irritation.

Plant Description

Coat Button is a semi-prostrate, spreading, herbaceous, perennial, procumbent annual herb that normally grows about 8-30 inches (20-75 cm) tall. Stem is cylindrical, solid and highly hispid, covered with multicellular hairs of 1 mm, tuberculate at the base. Hairs are more scattered towards the base and attenuated towards the top. The stems produce new roots at the leaf nodes.  The plant has strong taproot. The plant is found growing in found in annual crops, roadsides, pastures, fallow land, meadows, waste grounds, railways, riverbanks, dikes and dunes and occasionally in lawns, perennial crops and nurseries.

Leaves

Leaves are opposite, simple, fleshy, pubescent, and carried by a concave petiole, 0.8-2.5 cm long. Leaf blades are thick, soft and dark green. The lamina is oval to lanceolate, 2.5 to 6 cm long and 2 to 5 cm wide, base attenuate in corner and with strongly and irregularly serrated margin. Both sides are hispid, with tuberculate based bristles. Pubescence is most abundant on the underside. 2-3 lateral veins are present on each side of the midrib.

Flowers

At the end of the long stems, is a capitulum inflorescence, comprising at the periphery of 4 to 7 spreading flowers. Flower looks like daisy .The flower is tubular, yellow centered white or yellow flowers with three-toothed ray florets. They are about 0.4-0.6 inches (1-1.5 cm) wide, and held on a 4-12 inches (10-30 cm) long stalk. It has two types of flower: ray florets and disc florets with basal palcentation. Sometimes the flowers are 3 lobed with long, penduncled heads. Flowering and fruiting occurs throughout the year, but from May to December is the time that it is fully in bloom.

Fruit

Fertile flowers are followed hard achene dark brown to black, narrowly obconical, and 2.0-2.5 mm long, with 15-20 patent, 0.12-0.24 inches (3-6 mm) long, rather stiff, feathered, unequal bristles and having a feathery, plume like white pappus at one end. Calyx is represented by scales or reduced to pappus.

Microscopy of Coat Button

Part of Plant Morphology Observation
 

 

 

 

 

Leaf

Color Green
Odor Characteristics
Taste Acrid
Size 3-7 cm long and 1-5 cm wide
Shape Lanceolate to ovate
Texture Short
Fracture Easy
Apex Acute
Margin Irregularly toothed
Arrangement opposite
Appearance Rough and scabrous
 

 

 

Stem

Color Green
Odor Characteristic
Taste Acrid
Size 23-46cm
Shape Cylindrical
Texture Smooth
Fracture Soft
 

 

 

Root

Color Brown
Odor Characteristic
Taste Acrid
Size 15-32cm
Shape Tortuous
Texture Rough
fracture Soft

 

Traditional uses and plant preparation of Coat Button

Location Preparation/extract Plant ailment uses
 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

Leaves: juice ·         Anemia, colds, inflammation, hepato-pathies, vaginitis, stomach pain, diarrhea, mucosal inflammation, skin infections, bleeding.
Leaves: poultice, dried infusions Stems: dried ·         Reduce inflammation, gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, high blood pressure, diabetes
Whole plant: dried ·         Protozoal infections, treatment of chronic ulcers caused by leishmaniasis, gastrointestinal disorders
India Leaves: dried and other herbs

ingested orally, juice

·         Diabetes, insect repellent, used to treat diarrhea, and to help check for hemorrhages, as well as hair loss. Jaundice, healing of wounds, inflammation
Africa Whole plant: blending with other

herbs adding salt and water

·         Treating mastitis in livestock
 

 

 

 

 

Africa

Ghana ·         Decoction with Phyllanthus amarus

·         Aqueous extracts

·         Anti-malarial, antibacterial, wound-healing

·         Anti-plasmodial activity

Nigeria Whole plant: dried ·         Fever, Typhoid fever, cough, back ache, stomach ache, diarrhea, epilepsy
Benin Whole plant: dried ·         Rabbit or livestock feed
Togo Leaves: dried ·         Dressing wounds, pain, malaria and abdominal and gastrointestinal mycosis

 

Traditional uses and benefits of Coat Button

  • In Indian traditional medicine, it is used as anticoagulant, repellent, antidiarrheal, anti-dysenteric.
  • Leaf juice is used on fresh wounds, to stop bleeding, and as hair tonic in tonic.
  • It is used for liver disorders, arthritis, and heartburn also for hair growth in Ayurveda.
  • Local Yoruba population uses the leaves for treatment to reduce blood pressure In Nigeria.
  • Leaf juice is used for colds, inflammation, vaginitis, stomach pains and diarrhea in Guatemala.
  • Whole plant used for protozoal infections and treatment of chronic ulcers.
  • Dried whole plant is used for fever, cough, back ache, diarrhea and epilepsy in Africa.
  • Dried leaves are used for malaria, gastrointestinal mycosis, and for dressing wounds.
  • Traditionally, the plant has been in use in India for wound healing and as an anticoagulant, antifungal, and insect repellent.
  • Juice extracted from the leaves is directly applied on wounds.
  • Its leaf extracts were used for infectious skin diseases in folk medicines.
  • It is used in Ayurvedic medicine for liver disorders, hepato-protection, gastritis, and heartburn.
  • The plant is also used as treatment for boils, blisters, and cuts by local healers in parts of India.
  • The plant can be used for wound healing, staunching bleeding and treatment of diarrhea, backache and bronchial catarrh.
  • Coat buttons has been used to treat skin diseases and heal wounds, as an anticoagulant, fungicide, as a hair tonic, insect repellant and to treat diabetes.
  • It is useful in the treatment jaundice, bronchial catarrh, diarrhea, dysentery, inflammation, ulcers, anal fistula, and hemorrhoids.
  • Leaf juice can be used to cure fresh wounds, to stop bleeding.
  • Leaf extract cures liver disorders.
  • In Jamaica, it is used for fever and for the treatment of catarrh.
  • Plant is also used in the treatment of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
  • The plant is also used to stop bleeding, and for liver disorders, arthritis, heartburn, and as a hair tonic to promote hair growth.
  • Leaf juice is used for colds, inflammation, vaginitis, stomach pains, and diarrhea in Guatemala.
  • Whole plant is used for protozoal infections, and for the treatment of chronic ulcers.
  • In Nigeria, the entire plant is used to treat typhoid fever, cough, fever, stomachache, backache, diarrhea, and epilepsy.
  • The leaves are antiseptic, haemostatic and parasiticide.
  • They are used as a treatment against bronchial catarrh, dysentery, and diarrhea.
  • A fine paste of the leaves is applied externally to reduce swelling of hemorrhoids and to stop bleeding.
  • The leaf sap is applied topically to sores and ulcers.
  • The juice extracted from the leaves of the plant is applied directly on the Wounds.
  • The leaf extracts are used for infectious Skin diseases.
  • A paste of leaves is used externally to reduce swelling of Hemorrhoids and stop Bleeding.
  • The leaf sap of the plant applied topically cures Sores and Ulcers.
  • It is used to treat Liver disorders, Gastritis and Heartburn.
  • It is used to treat Boils, Blisters and Cuts.
  • In Guatemala, T. procumbens is used as an antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral treatment as well as for vaginitis, stomach pain, diarrhea, mucosal inflammations, and skin infections.
  • The leaf juice is used to treat wounds and stop bleeding.
  • In Guatemala, the entire plant is used for the treatment of protozoal infections.
  • Decoction of the leaves is used against pain, to treat malaria, and against abdominal and gastrointestinal mycosis.
  • It is known as an insect repellent, used to treat diarrhea, and to help check for hemorrhages in India

Other Facts

  • In Africa, plant is used for treating mastitis in livestock.
  • The leaf juice possesses insecticidal and parasiticidal properties.
  • Smoke produced by burning the plant is used to repel mosquitoes.
  • The leaves are used as a hair restorative.

Prevention and control

Cultural Control

Coat Button does not have the great powers of regeneration possessed by some other perennial Compositae and can be easily controlled by cultivation and hand pulling.

Chemical Control

Herbicides reported to give control of T. procumbens include ametryne, atrazine, 2, 4-D and diuron, Avirosan (dimethametryn + piperophos) and oxadiazon in rice, bromacil, metobromuron + metolachlor in cowpea, MCPA and 2, 4-D in sisal and oxyfluorfen in groundnut.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=38575#null

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/tridax_procumbens.htm

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/55072

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/TRQPR

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/gcc-42420

http://www.stuartxchange.com/CoatButtons

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Tridax%20Daisy.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tridax_procumbens

https://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/33338#brief

http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Tridax%20procumbens

https://plants.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=TRPR5

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