Know about Fringed Pink

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Fringed pink Quick Facts
Name: Fringed pink
Scientific Name: Dianthus superbus
Origin Europe
Shapes Cylindrical capsule, equaling or slightly longer than calyx
Taste Bitter
Health benefits Beneficial for blood pressure, fevers, bacterial infections, cystitis, urinary stones, constipation, failure to menstruate, hemorrhoids, lumbricoid worms, venereal sores
Dianthus superbus commonly known as Fringed pink or large pink is a European/Asian loosely tufted species belonging to Pink family Caryophyllaceae. The plant is native to whole of Europe with the exception of the British Isles, West-Siberia, East Siberia, Sakhalin, Mongolia, China, Japan and Taiwan. Greek botanist Theophrastus gave these flowers the genus name Dianthus, which means “divine flower.” The common name of “pink” comes from the Old English word “pynken,” meaning to cut or notch, in reference to the distinctive sharp edges of the petals. In fact, this family of flowers brought about the use of the word “pink” to describe a color.

Dianthus is easily propagated by seed sown directly in the ground in late March to early April. Seeds may be also planted in the fall in warmer climates, or in containers in a cold frame in cold climates. Propagation by division may be done in the spring when plants are 3-5 inches high. Plants are dug up, divided into 3 or 4 clumps, and replanted. Dianthus grows best in well-drained, rich sandy loam, with full sun. The plant is hardy in USDA zones 3 to 8.

Fringed Pink Facts

Name Fringed Pink
Scientific Name Dianthus superbus
Native Whole of Europe with the exception of the British Isles, West-Siberia, East Siberia, Sakhalin, Mongolia, China, Japan and Taiwan
Common Names African cottom leafworm; Cotton leafworm, Egyptian cotton leafworm, Egyptian cotton worm, Mediterranean climbing cutworm, Meditteranea Brocade, Tobacco cutworm
Name in Other Languages Azerbaijani: Parlaq qərənfil
Bulgarian: Prevŭzkhoden karamfil (превъзходен карамфил), velikolepen karamfil (великолепен карамфил)
Chinese: Qu mai  (瞿麦)
Croatian: Divotnik
Czech: Hvozdík pyšný
Danish: Strand-nellike
Dutch: Prachtanjer
English: Fringed pink, large pink, superb pink
Estonian: Aasnelk
Finnish: Pulskaneilikka
French: Oeillet superbe, Œillet superbe, mignardise des prés, oeillet à lanières, oeillet à plumet
German: Pracht-Nelke
Greek: Díanthos megaloprepís (δίανθος μεγαλοπρεπής)
Hungarian: Buglyos szegfű
Italian: Garofano a pennacchio, Garofano superbo, garofano da pennacchio
Japanese: Ezo-kawara-nadeshiko (エゾカワラナデシコ)
Korean: Kkot sul pae raeng i kkot, sul pae raeng i kkot, kkochsulpaelaeng-ikkoch (꽃술패랭이꽃), sulpaelaeng-ikkoch (술패랭이꽃)
Latvian: Krašna nelke
Lithuanian: Puošnusis gvazdikas
Northern sami: Riessanellet
Norwegian: Silkenellik
Polish: Goździk pyszny
Romanian: Garoafe de munte
Russian: Gvozdika pyshnaya (Гвоздика пышная)
Serbian: Ibrišim karanfil (Ибришим каранфил)
Slovak: Klinček pyšný, klinček pyšný pravý
Slovene: Cudoviti klinçek
Swedish: Praktnejlika, Pulskaneilikka
Ukrainian: Hvozdyka harna (Гвоздика гарна)
Plant Growth Habit Evergreen, loosely tufted herbaceous perennial plant
Growing Climates Evergreen, loosely tufted herbaceous perennial plant
Soil Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun. Prefers fertile, slightly alkaline, somewhat gritty loams with good drainage
Plant Size 80 cm tall
Stem Caespitose, erect, distally branched, glabrous, large jointed
Leaf Linear-lanceolate, 5–10 cm  long and 3–5 mm wide, sometimes glabrescent, mid vein prominent, base connate into a sheath, apex sharply pointed
Flowering season June to September
Flower Solitary or a few of them gather into panicle; tubular calyx is 2.7 to 3.7cm long; bracts are 4 to 6, broadly ovate, and about 1/4 of the calyx tube length; deeply cut fringed petals are brown purple or brown, and curly
Fruit Shape & Size Cylindrical capsule, equaling or slightly longer than calyx, 4-toothed
Seed Black, glossy, compressed ovoid, ca. 2 mm
Propagation By Seed
Taste Bitter
Plant Parts Used Flowers, leaves, nectar
Season Aug–Oct

Plant Description

Fringed pink is a bushy short-lived, evergreen, loosely tufted herbaceous perennial plant that normally grows about 80 cm tall with decumbent stems below and branched upright stems above. The plant is found growing in wooded hills, forest openings and margins, grassy hillsides, meadows, mountain valley streams, river banks, dry meadows, sandy and gravelly river banks, shore meadows, rocky embankments, dry commons and roadsides.  The plant can be easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun. It also prefers fertile, slightly alkaline, somewhat gritty loams with good drainage. When planting grown plants, the lowest leaves on the plant should not be buried, and when cultivating, care should be taken not to damage the feeder roots that lie close to the ground surface.  Stem is caespitose, erect, distally branched, glabrous, large jointed. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, 5 -10 cm long and 3–5 mm wide, sometimes glabrescent, mid vein prominent, base connate into a sheath and apex sharply pointed.

Flower and fruits

Flowers are solitary or a few of them gather into panicle. Tubular calyx is 2.7 to 3.7cm long; bracts are 4 to 6, broadly ovate, and about 1/4 of the calyx tube length; deeply cut fringed petals are brown purple or brown, and curly. Flowering normally takes place from June to September. Fertile flowers are followed by 4 toothed, cylindrical capsules, equaling or slightly longer than calyx.

Scentless flowers are also found in a variety of bright colors from pink and red, to lavender and white, often with dark purple eyes. These plants are very cold sensitive and require mulching to protect them from frost.

Traditional uses and benefits of Fringed pink

  • Fringed pink, called Qu Mai in Chinese herbalism has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2,000 years.
  • Whole plant is a bitter tonic herb that encourages the digestive and urinary system, and also the bowels.
  • It also lowers blood pressure, reduces fevers and controls bacterial infections.
  • Little used on its own, it is often taken with Dan Shen (Salvia multiorrhiza) to induce menstruation.
  • The plant is abortifacient, contraceptive, and diuretic, emmenogogue, ophthalmic, tonic and vulnerary.
  • It is said to promote hair growth.
  • Plant is taken internally in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections (especially cystitis), urinary stones, constipation and failure to menstruate.
  • Externally, it is applied to skin inflammations and swellings.
  • The leaves are used in the treatment of hemorrhoids, lumbricoid worms, venereal sores etc.
  • The flowers are astringent, diuretic, hemostatic, resolvent and vulnerary.
  • Research has shown that the flowers are the most markedly diuretic part of the plant.
  • Old leaves can be crushed and used to clear the eyesight.

Culinary Uses

  • Leaves, stems and tops are boiled, steeped in water and eaten as a potherb.
  • Young plants are also eaten.
  • Children suck the flowers for their sweet edible nectar.
  • Fresh dianthus petals can be used to liven up salads, sandwiches and pies.
  • Petals of the flowers, when crystallized, make beautiful decorations for cakes and pastries.

Precautions

  • Avoid use during pregnancy as it causes uterine contractions.
  • Excess use may cause toxicity.
  • It should be avoided in cases of spleen-kidney deficiency.
  • Over dosage of dianthus can cause prolonged contractions of the uterus.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=823588#null

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=13866

https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dianthus+superbus

http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=a822

https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q161878

https://en.hortipedia.com/index.php?title=Dianthus_superbus&mobileaction=toggle_view_desktop

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=DISU12

https://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/37999/#b

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2764999

http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:153941-1

https://naturelib.net/plantae/dianthus-superbus/

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/DINSU

https://practicalplants.org/wiki/Dianthus_superbus

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