Beetroot – Beta vulgaris


Beetroot - Beta vulgaris

Beetroot Quick Facts
Name: Beetroot
Scientific Name: Beta vulgaris
Origin Originate along the coasts of the Mediterranean
Colors Originate along the coasts of the Mediterranean
Shapes Round taproot with minimal secondary roots
Flesh colors Originate along the coasts of the Mediterranean
Taste Sweet, earthy and tender
Calories 58 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Vitamin B9 (37.00%)
Manganese (19.43%)
Iron (13.63%)
Copper (11.33%)
Carbohydrate (10.00%)
Health benefits Blood pressure management, Beetroot for the brain and dementia, Increased Exercise Capacity, Treats Anaemia, Boosts Stamina, Beneficial for overall health, Good for Heart Health, Macular Degeneration, Strokes, Prevents Respiratory Problems, Prevents Cataracts
Beta vulgaris more commonly known as beetroot, Fodder Beet, Chard, Field beet, Chioggia beet, Fodder Sugar Beet is a vegetable native to coasts of the Mediterranean. It is an herbaceous two-yearly or perennial plant of family Chenopodiaceae and Beta L. genus. Beetroot is frequently added as an ingredient to soups, pickles salads and is also used as a natural coloring agent. Blankoma Beet, Detroit Dark Red, Chiogga Beet, Cylindra Beets, Golden Beet, Red Beets, Baby Beets, Yellow or Gold Beets, Specialty Beets, Baby Candy Cane Beet, Sugar Beets, Egyptian Flat Beets White Beets, and Bull’s Blood Beet, are some popular varieties of beetroot. Beetroot is also known as Chukandar in India, Bangar in Arabic, Arde in French, Salk in Iraq and Remolacha in Galician.


Beetroot is a biennial or perennial plant 1-2 m tall which is found growing in cool-weather which is hardy and can tolerates some freezing. It prefers deep and well-drained, loose, loamy to sandy soils with an abundant amount of organic matter. It has round taproot along with minimal secondary roots. Stem are normally short and plate, producing simple leaves that are arranged in a closed spiral. Leaves are normally heart shaped, broad dark-green about 5–20 cm long. Flowers are comparatively small with a diameter of 3 to 5 mm and are produced in dense spikes. They are green or tinged reddish, along with five petals. Fruit is a cluster of hard nutlets.


Beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant which matures in 50-60 days of planting and weighs about 100 to 150 g. If it is not collected at right time, it keeps growing in size to more than a pound and may develop surface cracks, lose taste and become less appetizing due to excess fiber content. Beetroots are mainly grown for their swollen roots but the leaves may also be eaten as spinach. It is normally deep red-purple colored vegetable which has sweet, earthy and tender taste. It is highly nutritious and “cardiovascular health” friendly root vegetables which can be used in a variety of food items like soups, salads, pickles and many more.


Beet roots are considered to have originated from the coasts of the Mediterranean (sea beets) and were first grown for their edible leaves. Even though the leaves have been consumed since before written history, the beet root was commonly used medicinally and did not become a popular food till French chefs documented their potential in the 1800’s.

Nutritional Value

Apart from their sweet, earthy and tender taste beetroot is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Consuming 136 gram of beetroot offers 148  µg of Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic acid), 0.447 mg of Manganese,1.09 mg of Iron, 0.102 mg of Copper, 13 g of Carbohydrate, 3.8 g of Total dietary Fiber, 442  mg of Potassium, 54 mg of Phosphorus, 6.7 mg    of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Moreover many Amino acids like 0.026 g of Tryptophan, 0.065 g of Isoleucine, 0.064 g of Threonine, 0.076 g of Valine, 0.092 g of Leucine and 0.079 g of Lysine are also found in 136 gram of this beetroot.

Nutritional value of Beetroot
Serving Size: 1 Cup, 136 g

Calories 58 Kcal. Calories from Fat 2.07 Kcal.

Proximity Amount % DV
Water 119.11  g N/D
Energy 58  Kcal N/D
Energy 245  kJ N/D
Protein 2.19  g 4.38%
Total Fat (lipid) 0.23  g 0.66%
Ash 1.47  g N/D
Carbohydrate 13  g 10.00%
Total dietary Fiber 3.8  g 10.00%
Total Sugars 9.19  g N/D

Minerals Amount % DV
Manganese, Mn 0.447  mg 19.43%
Iron, Fe 1.09  mg 13.63%
Copper, Cu 0.102  mg 11.33%
Potassium, K 442  mg 9.40%
Phosphorus, P 54  mg 7.71%
Magnesium, Mg 31  mg 7.38%
Sodium, Na 106  mg 7.07%
Zinc, Zn 0.48  mg 4.36%
Calcium, Ca 22  mg 2.20%
Selenium, Se 1  µg 1.82%

Vitamins Amount % DV
Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic acid) 148  µg 37.00%
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 6.7  mg 7.44%
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.091  mg 7.00%
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 0.211  mg 4.22%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.054  mg 4.15%
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.042  mg 3.50%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 0.454  mg 2.84%
Choline 8.2  mg 1.49%
Vitamin A 3  µg 0.43%
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.05  mg 0.33%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 0.3  µg 0.25%
Beta Carotene 27  µg N/D
Betaine 175  mg N/D

Lipids Amount % DV
Fatty acids, total saturated 0.037  g 0.06%
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated 0.082  g 0.48%
Palmitic acid 16:00 (Hexadecanoic acid) 0.035  g N/D
Stearic acid 18:00 (Octadecanoic acid) 0.001  g N/D
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated 0.044  g N/D
Oleic acid 18:1 (octadecenoic acid) 0.044  g N/D
Linoleic acid 18:2 (octadecadienoic acid) 0.075  g N/D
Linolenic acid 18:3 (Octadecatrienoic acid) 0.007  g N/D
Phytosterols 34g N/D

Amino Acids Amount % DV
Tryptophan 0.026  g 5.91%
Isoleucine 0.065  g 3.89%
Threonine 0.064  g 3.64%
Valine 0.076  g 3.60%
Leucine 0.092  g 2.49%
Lysine 0.079  g 2.36%
Histidine 0.029  g 2.35%
Tyrosine 0.052  g 1.79%
 Cystine 0.026  g 1.56%
Methionine 0.024  g N/D
Phenylalanine 0.063  g N/D
Arginine 0.057  g N/D
Alanine 0.082  g N/D
Aspartic acid 0.158  g N/D
Glutamic acid 0.582  g N/D
Glycine 0.042  g N/D
Proline 0.057  g N/D
Serine 0.08  g N/D
Quercetin 0.2  mg N/D
Flavones N/D
Luteolin 0.5  mg N/D

*Above mentioned Percent Daily Values (%DVs) are based on 2,000 calorie diet intake. Daily values (DVs) may be different depending upon your daily calorie needs. Mentioned values are recommended by a U.S. Department of Agriculture. They are not recommendations. Calculations are based on average age of 19 to 50 years and weighs 194 lbs.

Health benefits of Beetroot

Consuming fruits and vegetables of all kinds has long been related with a decreased risk of many lifestyle-related health conditions. Research have recommended that increasing consumption of beetroot treats Anemia, manage blood pressure, good for brain and dementia, increase exercise capacity, boost stamina and many more.

1. Blood pressure management

Hypertension refers to high blood pressure, which can cause injury to blood vessels and the heart. It is regarded one of the sturdiest risk factors for heart disease, stroke and premature death worldwide. Consumption of fruits and vegetables, rich in inorganic nitrates, may help to cut the risk of cardiovascular disease by endorsing lower blood pressure and increased nitric oxide formation.

Research has proven that beetroots, or beetroot juice, can help to decrease blood pressure if we consume it regularly. This type of blood pressure lowering effects is likely because of increased levels of nitric oxide, a molecule which causes our blood vessels to relax and dilate.(1), (2)

2. Beetroot for the brain and dementia

Frequent use of Beet root juice increases blood flow towards the brain of older people that may help to fight off the development of dementia. Beetroot includes high concentrations of nitrates that are transformed into nitrites by bacteria in the mouth. Nitrites help widen blood vessels in the body, increasing blood flow and oxygen to places lacking in oxygen.(3)

3. Increased Exercise Capacity

Research revealed that nitrates can improve physical performance, mainly throughout high intensity endurance workout. Beetroots or beetroot juice are frequently used for this purpose because of their high inorganic nitrate content. Consumption of beetroots may improve increase stamina, running and cycling performance, recover oxygen use and lead to better exercise performance overall.(4)

4. Treats Anemia

Since Beetroot is reddish in color, it is a common legend that it substitutes lost blood and thus good to treating anemia. There is an incomplete truth concealed in the myth. Beetroot comprises lot of iron. Iron helps in the formation of haemagglutinin that is a part of the blood which helps transport oxygen as well as nutrients to numerous body parts. It is in fact iron content not the color which helps treats anemia.

5. Boosts Stamina

Different research has revealed that consumption of beetroot juice decreases oxygen uptake to an extent that cannot be achieved by any other known means, including training. Beetroot juice helps to increase the stamina and could help to exercise for up to 16% longer. Nitrate contained within beetroot juice result in a decrease in oxygen uptake, making exercise less tiring.(5)

6. Beneficial for overall health

Beetroot is considered to be powerful dietary source of health promoting agents which holds potential as therapeutic cure for numerous extreme complaints. Several scientific research have proven that beetroot is loaded with essential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vascular-protective effects; therefore it is now becoming more popular as a nutritional approach to manage cardiovascular disease as well as cancer. Numerous research done till now have concluded that beetroot supplementation has reduce blood pressure, preserve endothelial function, prevent oxidative stress, weaken inflammation and restore cerebrovascular haemo dynamics. Apart from that beetroot supplementation is effective means for enhancing athletic performance.(6)

7. Good for Heart Health

Fiber present in Beetroot helps in reducing cholesterol and triglycerides by increasing level of good cholesterol. High level of triglycerides may boost the chances of Heart related problems; therefore increased good cholesterol is a good line of protection. Regular consumption of beetroot helps in preventing cardiovascular diseases in many ways. Problems like strokes, heart attacks and atherosclerosis will disappear from our body. Fiber of beetroot works to shred extra LDL cholesterol from the walls and help to eradicate it from the body rapidly.(7)

8. Macular Degeneration

Beetroots consist of beta-carotene which is essential for reducing or slowing macular degeneration in the eyes. Macular degeneration is often related with an increase in free radicals, which radically affect the premature aging process of countless people. Beta-carotene is a powerful form of vitamin A, which has antioxidant competences and protects the eyes from the harmful effects of these free radicals.(8)

9. Strokes

Stroke is caused die to the deficiency of potassium in the body. Therefore, the potassium-rich beetroot is suggested to enhance heart health. Potassium also known as vasodilator, which means it lessens the blood vessels and decreases blood pressure all through the body. As soon as blood pressure is decreased, vessels and arteries are no longer contracted, due to which blood clots are far less likely to form, or get stuck, plaque that may have built up along the walls of blood vessels will not gather more waste to form extra clots. Clots are what finally result to heart attacks and strokes, so beets and their potassium content is fairly a health supporter!(9)

10. Prevents Respiratory Problems

Beetroot is a source of vitamin C that helps to avoid asthma symptoms. Natural beta carotene contained in beetroot helps to avoid lungs cancer. Vitamin C is also a prevailing antioxidant which increases the immune system in a number of ways. Vitamin C also encourages the activity of white blood cells, which is the body’s main line of defense towards foreign bodies, as well as bacterial, fungal, viral and protozoan toxins which can result in a host of infections and illnesses. Vitamin C present in Beetroot helps in fighting the snuffles to reducing the chances of cancer!(10)

11. Prevents Cataracts

Beta-carotene, form of vitamin A, helps to avoid age-related blindness termed cataracts as well as a decrease in macular degeneration that normally happens as we get older. Vitamin A is deliberated as a powerful antioxidant substance that is involved in numerous essential actions in the body.(11)

How to Eat

  • They can be consumed boiled, raw and baked.
  • They are well-known as pickles as well as in a Russian soup called Borscht.
  • Leaves are excellent when cooked by themselves or with baby beets attached.
  • Beet greens taste comparable to spinach.
  • Older leaves are tasty when stir-fried.
  • Beet juice is a popular health food.
  • Roots are boiled and consumed as a cooked vegetable, either plain, fried or served with sauces.
  • They are hollowed out and stuffed with savory mixtures.
  • Wine is made from beetroot in certain countries.
  • Whole leaf blades are usually prepared with the midribs as one dish in certain parts of Africa.
  • Raw beets are added to salads.
  • Roots are cooked and used as a vegetable; they are sweet and delightful when baked.
  • Marinate steamed beets in fresh lemon juice, extra virgin olive oil, and fresh herbs.
  • Prevalent in Australian hamburgers, beetroot is combined with fried egg to make an Aussie burger.
  • Roots are eaten boiled in curries with other vegetables such as tomato, carrot, potato India.

Other Traditional uses and benefits of Beetroot

  • Red beet juice helps to cure yellow jaundice.
  • When the juice is put in the nostrils, it is beneficial for ringing in the ears and toothaches.
  • It was used to treat illnesses relating to digestion and blood.
  • The Romans used beets as an herb for treatment of fever and constipation.
  • Beet leaves were used as binding for wounds.
  • Decoction from seeds is used as a remedy for tumors of the intestines and seeds boiled in water were a cure for genital tumors in Folk medicine.
  • Beetroot is regarded as a laxative, a cure for bad breath, headaches, and coughs and even as an aphrodisiac.
  • Roots and leaves of the beet have been used in folk medicine to treat an extensive variety of ailments.
  • Hippocrates encouraged the use of beet leaves for binding wounds.
  • Platina suggested taking beetroot along with garlic to nullify the effects of ‘garlic-breath’.
  • Beet juice in vinegar is said to rid the scalp of dandruff as scurf, and is suggested to prevent falling hair.

Other Facts

  • Beets contain a pigment called betalains which is used for dyes.
  • Dyes have been used for industrial red food colorants for improving the color of sauces and Jams, jellies, tomato paste and desserts and breakfast cereals.
  • Beets, with large leaves, are grown as decorative plants.


  • Beets comprise oxalates, which when consumed in excess may result in bodily fluids to crystallize.
  • People with gallbladder and kidney problems must avoid beetroots simply because they may worsen kidney and bladder stones.
  • Beetroot also offers higher levels of natural sugar and are not suggested for all those along with diabetic issues.

Beetroot Facts

Beetroot is a round taproot which is deep red-purple colored vegetable which grows in well-drained, loamy to sandy soils with an abundant amount of organic matter. It is loaded with important nutrients which is essential to remain healthy and happy.

Name Beetroot
Scientific Name Beta vulgaris
Native Originate along the coasts of the Mediterranean
Common/English Name Beet, beetroot, Target Beetroot,  Chard, Field beet, Fodder Beet, Sea Beet, Rainbow Chard, Red Flesh Beetroot, Fodder Sugar Beet, Forage Beet, Garden Beetroot, Golden beet, Indian Spinach, Perpectual Beet, Swiss Chard,  Roman Kale,  Italian Beetroot, Mangel, Mangold, Ordinary Beet, Ordinary Garden Beet, Foliage Beet,  Red Beet, Red Beetroot, Root Beet, Savoy Beet, Seakale beet, Semi-Sweet Sugarbeet, Silican Broad-Rib Beet, Mangel-Wurzel, Silver Beet, Sugarbeet, Spinach Chard, Chioggia beet, Leaf Beet
Name in Other Languages Arabic: Bangar
French: Arde
Iraq: Salk
Finnish: Lehtimangoldi
Dutch: Biet
German: Blatt Mangold
Catalan: Remolatxa
India: Chukandar
Galician: Remolacha
Czech: Cukrova Repa
Estonian: Harilik
Gaelic: Biotais
Euskara: Beterraba
Croatian: Blitva
Haitian Creole: Betrav
Bosnian: Cikla
Indonesia: Bit Gula
Chinese: Bai Gen Tian Cai
Hebrew: Selek Alim
Danish: Bladbede
Plant Growth Habit Herbaceous biennial rarely perennial plant
Growing Climate Cool-weather that is hardy and tolerates some freezing.
Soil Deep and well-drained, loamy to sandy soils with an abundant amount of organic matter
Plant Size 1–2 m tall
Root Weight 100 to 150 g.
Root Shape & Size Round taproot with minimal secondary roots
Root Color Deep red-purple
Root Taste Sweet, earthy and tender
Root Flesh Color Deep red-purple
Stem Stem is short and plate, producing simple leaves that are arranged in a closed spiral.
Leaf Leaves are heart shaped, broad dark-green leaves  5–20 cm long
Flower Flowers are very small with a diameter of 3 to 5 mm and are produced in dense spikes. They are green or tinged reddish, with five petals.
Fruit Fruit is a cluster of hard nutlets.
Varieties/Types Baby Candy Cane Beet, Egyptian Flat Beets, Bull’s Blood Beet, Specialty Beets, Golden Beet, Baby Beets, White Beets, Detroit Dark Red, Yellow or Gold Beets, Red Beets, Sugar Beets, Chiogga Beet, Cylindra Beets and  Blankoma Beet
Major Nutrition Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic acid) 148 µg (37.00%)
Manganese, Mn 0.447 mg (19.43%)
Iron, Fe 1.09 mg (13.63%)
Copper, Cu 0.102 mg (11.33%)
Carbohydrate 13 g (10.00%)
Total dietary Fiber 3.8 g (10.00%)
Potassium, K 442 mg (9.40%)
Phosphorus, P 54 mg (7.71%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 6.7 mg (7.44%)
Magnesium, Mg 31 mg (7.38%)
Health Benefits
  • Blood pressure management
  • Beetroot for the brain and dementia
  • Increased Exercise Capacity
  • Treats Anaemia
  • Boosts Stamina
  • Beneficial for overall health
  • Good for Heart Health
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Strokes
  • Prevents Respiratory Problems
  • Prevents Cataracts
Calories in 1cup (136gm) 58 Kcal

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Scientific Classification

Scientific name Beta vulgaris
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Order Caryophyllales
Family Chenopodiaceae
Genus Beta L.
Species Beta vulgaris L.
Super division Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Sub Class Caryophyllidae