The drug Botox is very popular worldwide. Due to its ability to block neuromuscular transmission, the drug is widely used in cosmetology to rid itself of wrinkles on the face and sweating. In some countries, Botox is used for the treatment of urinary incontinence in men, as well as research on its use in the treatment of gastric and prostate cancers.
Use in cosmetology
More and more people think about their appearance, more precisely about looking worthy at any age. Therefore, there is a growing interest in various cosmetic procedures and rejuvenating aesthetic operations.
Botulotoxin injections, which are the basis of Botox, are a kind of intermediate option between radical surgery and rejuvenating cosmetic procedures. By its nature, it is a type A botulinum toxin lyophilizate produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
In natural conditions, botulinum toxin (botulotoxin) is the strongest biological poison, the strength of which is several times higher than the toxicity of the venom of the rattlesnake. In the event of a pathological process (the disease is called “botulism”), the effects of botulotoxin are extensive and diverse: impaired swallowing, articulation and phonation, paresis of the intestine and respiratory muscle, impaired accommodation, and paralysis of the mimic muscle.
It was the last effect back in the 1980s of the past that interested medical researchers. In a certain way, botulotoxin was deprived of all its pathogenic properties, retaining only the ability to cause temporary paralysis of the mimic muscle. In fact, such a safe version of botulotoxin is a myorelaxant which, due to prolonged de-innervation of the mime muscle, reduces facial mobility and smooths the mime wrinkles.
It should be understood that a single injection of botulotoxin will not cause dramatic and prolonged changes. Muscle paralysis is temporary, as after 2.5-3 months there is the development of additional (spare) innervation of paralyzed muscle fibers. In addition, after 8-9 months from the moment of injection botulotoxin breaks down and the initial neuromuscular transmission is restored to almost the initial level. During this period of time, due to a significant reduction in the volume of muscle contractions of the mimic muscle, the so-called “goose legs” near the eyes, transverse wrinkles on the forehead, longitudinal wrinkles of the nasolabial fold disappear or decrease.
On health it is better not to save – it understands almost everyone. Therefore, such a question as aesthetic surgery on his own face it is better to trust a professional, to apply to a cosmetological clinic with a good reputation, rather than to go down to the nearest subtract, seduced by a low price. Like any other medication, Botox injections have positive and negative properties.
Botox administration should take place according to certain marks on the skin (taking into account the greatest muscle activity) as if the injection is made elsewhere, a completely different muscle will be paralyzed. As a result of such illiterate and unskilled actions, it is possible to develop the descent of the eyelid, skin coating, swallowing disorders, speech disorders due to paralysis of the skin over the upper lip. Botox is not administered to patients under 18 and over 65.
The process of preparing a solution for injection from a lyophilized powder also requires special care. The vial cannot be shaken strongly because protein denaturation and undesirable effects can occur when such a solution is administered. The prepared solution must be used within 24 hours or destroyed, i.e. long-term storage is not allowed.
Usually, botox injections are carried out in outpatient conditions in the procedural office, hospitalization is usually not necessary. The patient should have no purulent-inflammatory processes on the skin (herpes, streptodermia) before the procedure. However, botox injections do not always proceed smoothly.
After injections in the face area, the following may occur:
- Bruises or hematomas
- Upper eyelid descent, ptosis
These consequences are not dangerous and temporary.
In severe cases, dangerous systemic side effects such as:
- Severe allergic reactions (Quincke edema, anaphylactic shock) associated with individual hypersensitivity to the drug;
- Generalized facial muscle paralysis (manifested by visual and respiratory impairment), also associated with individual hypersensitivity to the drug and possible overdose of the drug.
Such emergency conditions require prompt and qualified medical care, followed by hospitalization in a medical institution. This type of assistance can be fully provided only by a qualified clinic and an appropriate specialist.
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