Facts about Crossvine

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Crossvine Quick Facts
Name: Crossvine
Scientific Name: Bignonia capreolata
Origin United States in the northeastern, north central, south central and southeastern regions. It is found from southern Ontario, south to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois
Colors Initially green turning to brown as they mature
Shapes Pod-like woody seed capsule that is approximately 6 inches long and 1 inch wide which mature in late summer
Health benefits Support rheumatism, edema, headaches, diphtheria and also purify blood
Bignonia capreolata popularly known as Crossvine and occasionally trumpet flower is a beautiful semi-evergreen, climbing, woody, vine in the genus Bignonia which consists of about 28 and 95 species and belongs to the family of the Bignoniaceae (Trumpet-creeper Family). The common name, crossvine, is derived from the shape of the pith in the vine’s stem when viewed in cross-section. The genus name Bignonia was named by the French botanist, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort to honor his friend Abbe’ Jean-Paul Bignon. The species epithet capreolata comes from the Latin word meaning tendrils. The plant is native throughout United States in the northeastern, north central, south central and southeastern regions. It is found from southern Ontario, south to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois. Few of the well-known common names of the plant are Quarter vine, Crossvine and Trumpet Flower.

Crossvine Facts

Name Crossvine
Scientific Name Bignonia capreolata
Native United States in the northeastern, north central, south central, and southeastern regions. It is found from southern Ontario, south to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois
Common Names Quartervine, Crossvine, Trumpet Flower
Name in Other Languages Afrikaans: Kruis wingerdstok
Albanian: Hardhi kryq
Amharic: Weyini teshageru (ወይን ተሻገሩ)
Arabic: Eabr karama (عبر كرمة)               
Armenian: Khach’i vort’                (խաչի որթ)
Azerbaijani: Carpaz üzüm
Bengali: Krasa latā (ক্রস লতা)
Bulgarian: Krŭstosana loza (кръстосана лоза)
Burmese: Hc pyit nwalpain ko hpyat (စပျစ်နွယ်ပင်ကိုဖြတ်)
Chinese: Héng màn (横蔓)
Croatian: Križna loza
Czech: Kříž révy
Danish: Kryds vin
Dutch: Kruis wijnstok
English: Quartervine, Crossvine, Trumpet Flower
Esperanto: Kruci vinberujon
Estonian: Rist viinapuu
Filipino: Tumawid ng puno ng ubas
Finnish: Rajat viiniköynnös
French: Croix de vigne, bignone orange, bignone à vrilles             
Georgian: Jvari vazi (ჯვარი ვაზი)
German: Kreuzrebe, Kreuzranke
Greek: Stavrós ampélou (σταυρός αμπέλου)
Gujarati: Krōsa vēlō (ક્રોસ વેલો)
Hausa: Gciye itacen inabi
Hebrew: חוצה גפן פרח, ביגנוניית הקנוקנות
Hindi: Bel ko paar karen (बेल को पार करें)
Hungarian: Keresztező szőlő
Icelandic: Kross vínviður
Indonesian: Anggur silang
Irish: Fíniúna tras
Italian: Croce di vite, bignonia aranciata, tetrafilla
Japanese: Tsurutsuru (つるつる), Tsuriganekazura (ツリガネカズラ)
Javanese: Nyebrang Vine
Kannada: Aḍḍa baḷḷi (ಅಡ್ಡ ಬಳ್ಳಿ)
Kazakh: Kross jüzim (кросс жүзім)
Korean: Keuloseu deong-gul (크로스 덩굴)
Kurdish: Tîrêja xaçê
Lao: Kham kheu (ຂ້າມເຄືອ)
Latin: Vinea crucis
Latvian: Krustu vīnogulāju
Lithuanian: Kirsti vynmedį
Macedonian: Krstot loz (крстот лоз)
Malagasy: Miampita voaloboka
Malay: Menyeberangi pokok anggur
Malayalam: Krēās muntirivaḷḷi (ക്രോസ് മുന്തിരിവള്ളി)
Maltese: Qasma tad-dwieli
Marathi: Kros velee (क्रॉस वेली)
Mongolian: Usan üzmiin usan üzmiin mod (усан үзмийн усан үзмийн мод)
Nepali: Krasa dacha (क्रस दाख)
Norwegian: Kryss vintreet          
Oriya: ଦ୍ରାକ୍ଷାଲତା
Pashto: کراس تاک
Persian: تاک متقاطع
Polish: Krzyż winorośli  
Portuguese: Videira cruzada
Punjabi: Karāsa vela (ਕਰਾਸ ਵੇਲ)
Romanian: Cruce de viță de vie
Russian: Krest loza (крест лоза)
Serbian: Ukrštena loza (укрштена лоза)
Sindhi: ڪراس وڻ
Sinhala: Haras midi (හරස් මිදි)
Slovenian: Križna trta
Spanish: Vid cruzada
Sudanese: Nyebrang vine
Swedish: Kors vinstock
Tajik: Tok az saliʙ (ток аз салиб)
Tamil: Kuṟukku koṭi (குறுக்கு கொடி)
Telugu: Krās vain (క్రాస్ వైన్)
Thai: K̄ĥām t̄heāwạly̒ (ข้ามเถาวัลย์)
Turkish: Capraz asma
Ukrainian: Poperechna loza (поперечна лоза)
Urdu: کراس بیل
Uzbek: Uzum uzum
Vietnamese: Cây nho chéo
Welsh: Croes winwydden
Zulu: Umvini wesiphambano
Plant Growth Habit Beautiful semi-evergreen, perennial, climbing, woody vine
Growing Climates Fences, arbors, walls, pillars or large trellises, as a groundcover, rich forests, swamps, along roadsides, fencerows, bottomland forests, floodplains, riverbanks, streamsides; less often in seasonally inundated swamps, wet thickets, and more mesic, upland forests
Soil Prefers full sun and moist, acidic, well-drained soils for best flowering. It is adaptable to other soil conditions, including poorly drained soils, once established and it can do well in low light levels. It is drought tolerant
Plant Size About 50 or more feet long
Stem Squarish and reddish-purple
Bark Grayish brown and scaly
Leaf Leaves are semi evergreen, opposite, pinnately compound, with two basal, leaflets with a branched tendril between the two leaves. Leaflets are 6-15 cm long, 2-7 cm wide and have smooth edges (entire), narrowly tapered tips (acuminate), and a notch at the base that makes them heart-shaped (cordate).
Flowering season From mid-March to mid-June
Flower Flowers are bell-shaped with orange on the outside and yellow inside, have 5 irregular lobes, and are 4-5 cm long
Fruit Shape & Size Pod-like woody seed capsule that is approximately 6 inches long and 1 inch wide which mature in late summer and persist into fall
Fruit Color Initially green turning to brown as they mature
Seed Capsule contains several rows of winged seed
Propagation By seeds, root cuttings and soft wood cuttings

Plant Description

Crossvine is a beautiful, vigorous, semi-evergreen, perennial, climbing, woody vine that normally grows about 50 or more feet long and uses its tendrils to attach its self to trees or fences or through the tops of thickets. Tubers can grow to 10 cm in diameter. The stem is squarish and reddish-purple. The bark is grayish brown and scaly. When cut in cross section, the phloem forms a distinct “X” within the stem. The plant climbs by tendrils. The tips of the tendril have adhesive disks that allow the vine to attach itself to a tree or other available support such as a fence. The plant is found growing in fences, arbors, walls, pillars or large trellises, as a groundcover, rich forests, swamps, along roadsides, fencerows, bottomland forests, floodplains, riverbanks, stream sides; less often in seasonally inundated swamps, wet thickets, and more mesic, upland forests. The plant prefers full sun and moist, acidic, well-drained soils for best flowering. It is adaptable to other soil conditions, including poorly drained soils, once established and it can do well in low light levels. It is drought tolerant. Crossvine can spread aggressively through stolons and may need to be managed in garden or domestic settings.

Leaves

Leaves are semi evergreen, opposite, pinnately compound, with two basal, leaflets with a branched tendril between the two leaves. Leaflets are 6-15 cm long, 2-7 cm wide and have smooth edges (entire), narrowly tapered tips (acuminate), and a notch at the base that makes them heart-shaped (cordate). The foliage turns from a lustrous green in the growing season to a reddish purple in the winter. Buds are reddish-purple and less than 1 cm long.

Leaf Arrangement Opposite
Leaf Venation Brachidodrome
Leaf Persistence Evergreen
Leaf Type Even Pinnately compound
Leaf Blade 5 – 10 cm
Leaf Shape Lanceolate
Leaf Margins Entire
Leaf Textures Waxy
Leaf Scent No Fragrance
Color(growing season) Green
Color(changing season) Green

 

Flowers

The flowers occur in clusters of two to five in the axils of the leaves. The flowers are trumpet shaped having 5 irregular lobes, and are 4-5 cm long. Flowers are commonly orange on the outside and yellow on the inside; rarely the flowers are yellow or a deep orange-red on the outside. Flowering occurs from mid-spring to late summer. The flowers are pollinated by the ruby-throated hummingbird and ants are commonly seen stealing nectar from the flowers.

Flower Showiness True
Flower Size Range 3 – 7
Flower Type Solitary
Flower Sexuality Monoecious (Bisexual)
Flower Scent Pleasant
Flower Color Yellow, Orange, Red
Seasons Spring, Summer

Fruit

Fertile flowers are followed by pod-like woody seed capsule that is approximately 6 inches long and 1 inch wide which mature in late summer and persist into fall. Fruits are initially green turning to brown as they mature. Each capsule contains several rows of winged seed. Crossvine is often available from nurseries. Several horticultural selections are available with different colored flowers.

Fruit Type Capsule
Fruit Showiness False
Fruit Size Range 3 – 7
Fruit Colors Brown
Seasons Spring, Summer

Traditional uses and benefits of Crossvine

  • Native Americans used crossvine as a remedy for numerous health ailments.
  • An infusion of leaves was used to purify blood.
  • Decoctions of leaves were used for rheumatism.
  • Decoctions of mashed bark were used to alleviate edema and headaches.
  • Individuals with diphtheria gargled a mashed root infusion.
  • Leaf was used by the Cherokee as a blood purifier or alterative herb.
  • The Koasati used the leaf for rheumatism and the bark was also used in baths as a remedy for headaches.

Other Facts

  • The showy, fragrant flowers and unique leaves of crossvine make this plant appropriate for some gardening and landscaping needs.
  • The tubular flowers and large quantities of nectar produced by crossvine are attractants for hummingbirds and butterflies.
  • The best time to harvest crossvine seeds is in late summer when their pods have browned.
  • Once harvested the seeds can be stored for planting at a later day.
  • In the 18th century, it was considered to be a key ingredient in beer and other drinks that were used to purify the blood. There is no conclusive evidence of this.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=34307#null

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=105186

https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=w830

https://plants.usda.gov/DocumentLibrary/plantguide/pdf/pg_bica.pdf

https://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/plant-of-the-week/Bignonia_capreolata.shtml

https://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/syllabi/308/Lists/Fourth%20Edition/Bignoniacapreolata.pdf

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/BIGCA

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-319861

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bignonia_capreolata

https://plants.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=BICA

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