Glucose, a simple carbohydrate, is the body’s number-one source of energy. Glucose is the most abundant sugar found in nature. In photosynthesis, plants make glucose, which provides energy for growth and other activities. Also called dextrose, glucose is our primary energy source as well. As already mentioned, most of the carbohydrates you eat are converted to glucose in the body. The concentration of glucose in the blood, referred to as the blood glucose level, is vital to the proper functioning of the human body. Glucose is found in fruits such as grapes, in honey, and in small amounts in many plant foods.
The monosaccharide glucose is the most abundant simple carbohydrate unit in nature. Also referred to as dextrose, glucose plays a key role in both foods and the body. Glucose gives food a mildly sweet flavor. It doesn’t usually exist as a monosaccharide in food but is instead joined to other sugars to form disaccharides, starch, or dietary fiber. Glucose makes up at least one of the two sugar molecules in every disaccharide.
Glucose is the basic carbohydrate unit used for energy by each of the body’s cells. The body handles its glucose judiciously—maintaining an internal store to be used when needed and tightly controlling its blood glucose concentration to ensure a steady supply. Glucose is virtually the only fuel used by the brain, except during prolonged starvation, when the glucose supply is low.
Firstly glucose was isolated from raisins by German chemist Andreas Marggraf in 1747. In 1792, glucose was discovered in grapes by Johann Tobias Lowitz and considered to be different from cane sugar. In 1838, glucose is the term coined created by Jean Baptiste Dumas which have been prevailed in chemical literature. Glucose is essential for many organisms, a correct understanding of its chemical makeup and structure which contributes largely to general advancement in organic chemistry. The understanding largely occurred as a result of investigations of Emil Fischer which is a German chemist who received Nobel Prize in 1902 for his findings. Glucose synthesis established structure of organic material and formed first definitive validation of Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff’s theories of chemical kinetics and arrangement of chemical bonds in carbon bearing molecules.
In 1992, Otto Meyerhof received Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of metabolism of glucose. In 1929, Hans von Euler-Chelpin was awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Arthur Harden for research on fermentation of sugar and share enzymes in this process. In 1947, Bernardo Houssay, Carl and Gerty Cori got Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Luis Leloir was awarded Nobel Prize in 1970 in Chemistry for discovery of glucose derived sugar nucleotides in biosynthesis of carbohydrates.
Food Sources of Glucose
|Food name||Weight (g)||Glucose (g)|
Health Benefits of Glucose
Discussed below are the health benefits of Glucose:
- Source of energy
Energy is required to support daily activity without which one could get tired easily. Glucose is required for production of energy and required to consume carbohydrate for glucose. After glucose is discharged through digestive system and absorbed into blood stream, glycogen is converted into glycogen which will be handled in the muscle. Glycogen will be converted into energy and required it could be converted into glucose.
- Enhance endurance
Glucose is an energy source. Glucose plays a significant role in maintaining endurance of body. More stock of glycogen, one have in muscle, more energy, and one have longer time before body starts feel exhaustion.
- Boost cognition
Study has shown that brain requires glucose for functioning optimally. Research shows that learning process lowers stock of glucose in the brain, once stock becomes depleted, student has problem to focus on study and weak on memorizing.
- Recover energy
Glucose is required for production of energy so one could perform all the activity regularly without feeling exhaustion but glucose is required as a part of recovery. After long day at work, one requires glucose for recovering energy so one has enough energy to start day tomorrow. At the time of rest, glucose will rebuild and restock glycogen in cells that could be used again wherever required.
- Physiological processes
Physiological process is like relaxation, muscle contraction, body temperature, respiration and heart rhythm. Those processes require glucose. In fact, all process in body from heart beat upto muscle contraction requires energy and without glucose energy will drain off.
- Regulates temperature
Body requires energy for maintaining warm. Glycogen in muscle is the reason why body has temperature. It is closely associated to fat in muscle. People having weight problem easily gets hot due to excess amount of fat in muscle.
- Natural preservative
Glucose oxidase is an enzyme which is found commonly in bacteria and fungus and used as a natural preservation in foods and acts as powerful anti-bacteria. This enzyme could be found in process of making dried and yogurt products. Glucose is required to activate this enzyme.
- Build muscle
More glucose is required for more intense workout. Glucose is required during and after exercises. Muscle requires new stock of glucose for energy and with protein glucose is needed to rebuild muscle after workout.