Facts about Shoebutton Ardisia

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Shoebutton Ardisia Quick Facts
Name: Shoebutton Ardisia
Scientific Name: Ardisia elliptica
Origin Indian Sub-continent (i.e. southern India and Sri Lanka) and south-eastern Asia (i.e. Taiwan, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines).
Colors Initially green and turning red when they mature and then purple/black when ripe
Shapes Fleshy drupes that is 5-9 mm across and are globose or sub-globose berries
Flesh colors Whitish
Health benefits Beneficial for pulmonary tuberculosis, hepatitis, chronic bronchitis, irregular menstruation, fever, diarrhea, rheumatism, retrosternal pains, herpes and measles
Ardisia elliptica, commonly known as shoebutton ardisia or duck’s-eyes, is an invasive shrub or small tree belonging to Myrsinaceae (Myrsine family). The plant’s native is uncertain although the original range has invariably included Indian Sub-continent (i.e. southern India and Sri Lanka) and south-eastern Asia (i.e. Taiwan, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines). It has been widely introduced and cultivated as an ornamental in warm locations throughout the world, with naturalization occurring in such places as Puerto Rico, some Caribbean islands, tropical Australia, several islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans including the State of Hawaii, and in southern Florida. It is a productive reproducer which has made it a successful invasive species in other locations in the tropics where it has been introduced as a garden ornamental.

Some of the popular common names of the plant are Duck’s Eye, Elliptical-Leaf Ardisia, Inkberry, ardisia, Seashore Ardisia, Shoe button, Shoebutton Ardisia, spear flower, China shrub and jet berry. Genus name comes from the Greek word aradis meaning a point in reference to the pointed anthers of these flowering trees and shrubs. Specific epithet means elliptic in reference to leaf shape. Common name of shoebutton ardisia is in reference to the purported resemblance of the fruit to old fashioned black shoe buttons. Common name of duck’s-eyes is in reference to the purported resemblance of the black fruits to the eyes of a flock of ducks hiding in the plant foliage. The plant is occasionally harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It is often grown as an ornamental, being valued especially for its attractive fruit.

Shoebutton Ardisia Facts

Name Shoebutton Ardisia
Scientific Name Ardisia elliptica
Native Uncertain although the original range has invariably included  Indian Sub-continent (i.e. southern India and Sri Lanka) and south-eastern Asia (i.e. Taiwan, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines)
Common Names Duck’s Eye, Elliptical-Leaf Ardisia, Inkberry, Seashore Ardisia, Shoe button, Shoebutton Ardisia, spear flower, ardisia, China shrub, jet berry
Name in Other Languages Adi: Goyakpin
Australia: China shrub, duck’s eye, jet berry
Bengali: Banajāma (বনজাম)
Bulgarian: Elipsovidna ardiziâ (елипсовидна ардизия)
Burmese : Krak-Ma.Oak
Chinese : Ai Zi Jin Niu, Dong Fang Zi Jin Niu, Suan Tai Cai (酸苔菜), Lan yu zi jin niu (蘭嶼紫金牛)
Cook Islands : Venevene Tinitō, Vine Tinitō
Cuba: Ardisia
English: Shoe-button ardisia, Shoebutton, duck’s eye, ellliptical-leaf ardisia, shoebutton ardisia, China-shrub
French : Ardisie Elliptique, Ati Popa’a
German: Schuhknopfardisia
Hindi: Dhan-priya (धनप्रिया)
India: Nbong Thithi, Kitti Gocho, Kutti, Lidi Kutti, Reedikki, Goli, Bisi, Kadna, Katapenga, Bugadi, Manipudbam, Kozhkkottai, Narikandam, Kaka-njara, Bodhina gida, Shuli, Bode, Sore, Banjam, Kuti, Damaai phal
Indonesia : Buni Keraton, Lempeni
Jamaica: Blackberry
Japanese: Seironmanryou (セイロンマンリョウ)
Javanese: Lempeni
Kannada: Bodinagida (ಬೋದಿನಗಿಡ), shuli, Bode (ಬೋದೆ), Sore, Chitli (ಚಿಟ್ಲಿ)
Malay: Pokok Mempenai
Malayalam: kakkanjara (കാക്കഞാറ), kēālarakk  (കോലരക്ക്), kolarakku, kuḻimuṇṭan  (കുഴിമുണ്ടൻ ), mēāḷakka (മോളക്ക), kēālarakk  (കോലരക്ക്)
Malaysia: Rempenai, Mempanai, Cempenai, Penai, Buah Letus, Kayu Lampilan, Duan Bisa Hati, Mata Ayam, Mata Itek, Mata Pelanduk, penar, Penah, Periah, Mata pelandok
Maori (Cook Islands): Venevene tinitō, vine tinitō
Marathi: Bugadi (बुगडी), dikna (दिकना)
Nepali: Damaai phal (दमाई फल)
Odia: Banajamu (ବଣଜାମୁ), kakajambu (କାକଜମ୍ବୁ)
Pakistan : Halad
Philippines : Bahagion, Kolen, Katagpo
Puerto Rico: Mameyuelo
Russian: Ardiziya ellipticheskaya (ардизия эллиптическая)        
Samoan : Togo Vao
Tahitian : Ati Popa‘A, Atiu
Tamil: Kolurucci (கோழுருச்சி), kozhikotai (கோழிக்கொடை), manipushpam (மணிபுஷ்பம்), narikandam (நாரிக்கண்டம்)
Telugu: Adavi mayuri (అడవి మయూరి), kaashi neredu (కాశి నేరేడు), konda mamidi (కొండ మామిడి), konda pogada (కొండ పొగడ), kondamayuramu (కొండమయూరము), pagada mulaka (పగడ ములక)
Thailand: Ramyai, Langphisa, Thurang Kasah, Cham, Pak Cham, Rām h̄ıỵ̀  (รามใหญ่)
Tulu: Bode (ಬೋದೆ)
USA: Inkberry, jet berry
Plant Growth Habit Tropical to semi-tropical broadleaf evergreen shrub or small tree
Growing Climates Under storey in tidal swamps, mangroves habitats, moist ravines and forests, riparian habitats, marsh islands, cypress stands, wet forests, monsoonal forests, wetlands and fallow fields, roadsides, scrubland, near villages, on field edges, in coastal areas, disturbed forest, mesic forest, lowland areas, along beaches, tidal riversides, peat-swamps, coastal berm, maritime hammock, hardwood hammock, mesic flat woods and cabbage palm hammock
Soil Prefers a moist or even wet, fertile soil, and can succeed in clay
Plant Size Up to 13 meters tall but is usually much smaller. The bole can be up to 20 cm in diameter
Root Grows a strong taproot, much-branched laterals, and fine roots with rhizomorphic tips
Stem Plants produce strong stems with gray bark. The stems are usually single, but additional sprouts may arise from the rootstalk, especially if the plant is injured.
Leaf Simple leaves are alternately arranged along the stems and borne on stalks 5-20 mm long. These leaf stalks are either green or reddish in color. The leaf blades are 6-20 cm long and 1.5-7 cm wide and are oval or somewhat elongated in shape (i.e. elliptic or oblanceolate)
Flowering season February and April
Flower Flowers are 6-13 mm across and usually have five small sepals that are 1-3 mm long and five petals, both of which also have their outer surfaces covered in tiny black spots (i.e. they are black punctate). The petals are pale pink, pale lavender or whitish in color, somewhat leathery in nature, and are slightly joined together at their bases
Fruit Shape & Size Fleshy drupes that is 5-9 mm across and are globose or sub-globose berries
Fruit Color Initially green and turning red when they mature and then purple/black when ripe
Flesh Color Whitish
Seed Seeds are approximately spherical with a diameter of about 5 mm
Propagation By seeds
Plant Parts Used Leaves, fruits
Lifespan Between 10 – 25 years
Season September -November

Plant Description

Shoebutton ardisia is a tropical to semi-tropical broadleaf evergreen shrub or small tree that can reach up to 13 meters tall but is usually much smaller. The bole can be up to 20 cm in diameter. The plant is found growing in under storey in tidal swamps, mangroves habitats, moist ravines and forests, riparian habitats, marsh islands, cypress stands, wet forests, monsoonal forests, wetlands and fallow fields, roadsides, scrubland, near villages, on field edges, in coastal areas, disturbed forest, mesic forest, lowland areas, along beaches, tidal riversides, peat-swamps, coastal berm, maritime hammock, hardwood hammock, mesic flat woods and cabbage palm hammock. The plant prefers a moist or even wet, fertile soil, and can succeed in clay soil as well. The plant grows a strong taproot, much-branched laterals, and fine roots with rhizomorphic tips.

Stems

Undamaged plants in forest habitats are characterized by a single main stem, producing short, spreading branches. Younger branches are 3-7 mm thick and are prominently angled and hairless.

Leaves

The simple leaves are alternately arranged along the stems and borne on stalks 5-20 mm long. These leaf stalks are either green or reddish in color. The leaf blades are 6-20 cm long and 1.5-7 cm wide and are oval or somewhat elongated in shape (i.e. elliptic or oblanceolate). They are somewhat leathery in nature and have entire margins, and have pointed or somewhat rounded tips (i.e. acute or obtuse apices). The leaves are also hairless and young foliage is often reddish in color.

Flowers

The flowers are borne on small branches that are 3-8 cm long emanating from the upper leaf forks of the main branches. The bases of the flower stalks are clustered together at or near the same point towards the end of the flowering branches (i.e. umbellate to racemose axillary inflorescences). These flower stalks are 1-2 cm long and are covered in tiny black spots. The flowers are 6-13 mm across and usually have five small sepals that are 1-3 mm long and five petals, both of which also have their outer surfaces covered in tiny black spots (i.e. they are black punctate). The petals are pale pink, pale lavender or whitish in color, somewhat leathery in nature, and are slightly joined together at their bases. These petals are up to 9 mm long and are somewhat elongated in shape (i.e. lanceolate) with pointed tips (i.e. acute or attenuate apices). The flowers also have five yellow stamens that surround a slightly longer style topped with a tiny pointed stigma. Flowering normally takes place in between February and April.

Fruit

Fertile flowers are followed by fleshy fruit that is 5-9 mm across and are rounded (i.e. globose or sub-globose) berries (actually drupes) that quickly turn from green to red when still quite immature. They eventually turn deep purplish or black in color at maturity and contain a single round hard seed that is about 5 mm across and is surrounded by a whitish colored pulp.

Traditional uses and benefits of Shoebutton Ardisia

  • The genus Ardisia is widely used as the traditional medicine to cure diseases like pulmonary tuberculosis, hepatitis, chronic bronchitis and irregular menstruation.
  • In Pakistani traditional medicine its roots are used against fever, diarrhea and rheumatism.
  • In folkloric medicine, the leaves or roots are boiled and a decoction is drunk for pains at the heart.
  • Leaves or the roots are used to treat fever, diarrhea and liver poisoning.
  • In traditional Thai medicine it has antipyretic activity and is used in diarrhea, gonorrhea and venereal diseases.
  • It a medicinal plant traditionally used for alleviating chest pains, fever, diarrhea, liver poisoning and parturition complications in Malaysia.
  • In Orissa, India, the fruit is used for fits by the Kondh tribal community and for eye pain by the Poraja tribal community.
  • The roots are used medicinally at childbirth.
  • A decoction of the leaves is said to assuage retrosternal pains.
  • The leaves are used to soothe and heal wounds in Philippines.
  • In Malaysia, a decoction of leaves is said to assuage retrosternal pains.
  • A paste made from the leaves is used to treat herpes and measles.
  • The fruits are used to cure diarrhea with fever in traditional Thai medicine.
  • In Southeast Asia leaves are used to treat scabies, and fruit for intestinal worms.
  • The Malays use a decoction of leaves to treat heart pains.
  • Leaves used to treat scabies and intestinal worms.
  • It can fight off free radicals which causes cancer, pre-mature ageing, and other diseases.
  • Boiled leaves or roots used to treat heartache.
  • In pharmacy, Shoebutton Ardisia has anti-platelet and anti-bacterial substances.

Culinary Uses

  • Fruit is edible and taste slightly sour and lacks flavor.
  • Young leafy shoots can be eaten raw or cooked.
  • In Orissa, the fruit are eaten by the Kondh, Poraja, Gadaba and Bonda tribal communities and the leaves used as vegetable by the Gadaba tribal community.
  • Young and fresh leaves are cooked as leafy vegetables and the ripe fruits are edible.
  • Leaves and young shoots eaten as vegetable; used as greens for salad or cooked with meat or fish.
  • Flowers and fruits cooked as flavoring for fish.
  • In the Malay Peninsula, young shoots are eaten.

Other Facts

  • The plant is a popular ornamental for growing in pots or in garden landscape.
  • The plant is useful for fuel and for use as vegetable stakes.
  • When the ripe fruit is squeezed by hand, the liquid can make fingers purple.
  • Individuals reach reproductive maturity in 2-4 years in the wild and 1-2 years in cultivation.
  • Mature plants in the forest with lots of sun can produce 400 fruits.

Prevention and Control

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product’s label.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Hand-pulling of seedlings is effective when plants are small, if rather time-consuming. Medium-sized plants can be mown, but then regrowth must be managed, such as with herbicide applications.

Biological control

Ewe et al. made two surveys of central and northern peninsula Malaysia in 2004 and 2005 to look for potential bio-control agents, but found only generalist herbivores as natural enemies.

Chemical control

In areas with a dense groundcover of seedlings, a broadcast spray of glyphosate is effective, although desirable plants will also be killed if not carefully avoided. Mature shrubs can be treated with a basal application of triclopyr mixed with oil. PIER noted from work in Hawaii that it is susceptible to 2, 4-D, especially after mowing, while triclopyr, dicamba and metsulfuron are less effective. Glyphosate is also reported as effective as a foliar spray and as a basal bark treatment, with tebuthiuron, triclopyr and triclopyr ester also proving effective. Siso and Burzycki found cut stump treatments with triclopyr to be 95% effective, though results were significantly different between sites, indicating that further study is needed.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=183615#null

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/ardisia_elliptica.htm

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/108066

https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=367876&isprofile=0&

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ADAEL

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2647897

http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Ardisia+elliptica&redir=Ardisia+squamulosa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardisia_elliptica

https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.214.3722&rep=rep1&type=pdf

http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Shoebutton%20Ardisia.html

https://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/ardisia_elliptica.htm

http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=52

https://plants.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=AREL4

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