Facts about Trident maple

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Trident maple Quick Facts
Name: Trident maple
Scientific Name: Acer buergerianum
Origin Eastern China (from Shandong west to southeastern Gansu, south to Guangdong, and southwest to Sichuan), Taiwan and Japan.
Shapes Samara about 1 inch long with two winged seeds.
Health benefits Treat rheumatism, bruises, hemostasis, hepatic disorders, pain, fractures, arthritis, redness and swelling of the eyes
Trident maple scientifically known as Acer buergerianum is a species of maple belonging to Aceraceae (Maple family). The plant is native to eastern China (from Shandong west to southeastern Gansu, south to Guangdong, and southwest to Sichuan), Taiwan and Japan. Apart from Trident maple it is popularly known as Taiwan Trident Maple and three-toothed maple. Genus name is the Latin name for a maple tree. Species name honors Heinrich Buerger, 19th century German botanist.

Plant Description

Trident maple is a small to medium-sized, spreading deciduous tree that normally grows about 5–20 m tall with a trunk up to 50 cm diameter. The plant can be planted in full sun or partial shade on any well-drained, acid soil and is quite tolerant of salt, air pollution, wind and drought. It performs well in urban areas where soils are often poor and compacted. Take care to plant the bud union above the soil level. Water in well and keep soil moist until tree is established. Fertilize when planting and again after new growth appears. Prune tree when planting to encourage new growth. Twigs are slender, flexible, reddish brown with gray pubescence. Buds are conical, reddish brown sharp pointed. Bark is scaly and exfoliating on larger stems, gray outer bark flakes off, revealing lighter reddish brown patches.

Trident Maple Facts

Name Trident maple
Scientific Name Acer buergerianum
Native Eastern China (from Shandong west to southeastern Gansu, south to Guangdong, and southwest to Sichuan), Taiwan and Japan
Common Names Trident maple, Taiwan Trident Maple, three-toothed maple
Name in Other Languages Arabic: Qiqib thulathiu alshaeb (قيقب ثلاثي الشعب)
Afrikaans: Chinese ahorn, Chinese esdoring, Shinese ahorn
Chinese: San jiao feng (三角枫 )
Czech: Javor Bürgerův
Danish: Japansk ahorn  
Dutch: Trident esdoorn
English: Trident maple, Taiwan Trident Maple
Finnish: Kolmihammasvaahtera
French:  Érable à écorce de dragon, Érable de Burger, Érable trilobé, Érable trident, Érable trifide
German: Dreispitz-Ahorn,  Dreizahn-Ahorn, Bürgers Ahorn, Dreispitziger Ahorn, dreizähniger Ahorn      
Hungarian: Háromerű juhar
Italian: Acero di Bürger, acero tridente
Japanese: Tou kaede (トウカエデ), tô-kaede
Korean: Jung-gugdanpungnamu (중국단풍나무), jung guk dan pung
Persian: افرای سه‌سره
Polish: Klon Bürgera
Portuguese: Bordo tridente     
Russian: Klion triochrazdieĺnyj (Клён трёхраздельный)  Клён trëkhrazdelʹnyj
Serbian: Kineski trorežnjeviti javor (Кинески трорежњевити јавор)
Spanish:  Arce tridente, Arce trífido, arce tridentado, auró tridentat
Swedish:  Tokyolönn
Plant Growth Habit Small to medium-sized, spreading deciduous tree
Soil Can be planted in full sun or partial shade on any well-drained, acid soil and is quite tolerant of salt, air pollution, wind and drought. It performs well in urban areas where soils are often poor and compacted
Plant Size Height of 5–20 m with a trunk up to 50 cm diameter
Bark Scaly and exfoliating on larger stems, gray outer bark flakes off, revealing lighter reddish brown patches
Twigs Slender, flexible, reddish brown with gray pubescence; buds conical, reddish brown sharp pointed
Leaf Leaves are pendulous and are in opposite pairs, 2.5–8 cm long (excluding the 2–5 cm petiole) and 3.5–6.5 cm broad, hard, glossy dark green above, paler below, usually with three lobes
Flowering season April-May
Flower Non-showy, greenish-yellow flowers bloom in spring (April-May), in pendulous corymbs. They are small, with five greenish sepals and five yellow-white petals about 2 mm long, and eight stamens.
Fruit Shape & Size Samara with two winged seeds, each seed 4–7 mm diameter, with a 15 mm wing; the wings are forward-pointing and often overlapping each other.
Plant Parts Used Roots, leaves, husks, stems, and fruits
Propagation By seeds, cuttings or air-layers
Lifespan About 100 yrs
Season October-November

Leaves

Leaves are pendulous and are in opposite pairs, 2.5–8 cm long (excluding the 2–5 cm petiole) and 3.5–6.5 cm broad, hard, glossy dark green above, paler below, usually with three lobes. On mature trees the lobes are forward-pointing and with smooth margins and on young trees with more spreading lobes and serrated margins. Variable but usually attractive fall color features shades of dark red and orange. The leaf color is a rich, lustrous green in the summer that in late season turns to shades of yellow and orange.

Leaf arrangement Opposite/sub opposite
Leaf type: simple
Leaf margin Serrate
Leaf shape Star-shaped
Leaf venation: Palmate
Leaf type and persistence Deciduous
Leaf blade length Less than 2 inches, 2 to 4 inches
Leaf color Green
Fall color Red, orange, yellow
Fall characteristic Showy

 

Flower

Non-showy, greenish-yellow flowers bloom in spring (April-May), in pendulous corymbs. They are small, with five greenish sepals and five yellow-white petals about 2 mm long, and eight stamens.

Flower color Yellow
Flower characteristics Showy

 

Fruit

Fertile flowers are followed by samara about 1 inch long with two winged seeds. Each seed is 4–7 mm diameter, with a 15 mm wing. The wings are forward-pointing and often overlapping each other.

Fruit shape Oval
Fruit length 0 .5 to 1 inch
Fruit covering Dry or hard
Fruit color Red
Fruit characteristics Does not attract wildlife; not showy; fruit/leaves not a litter problem

 

Traditional uses and benefits of Trident Maple

  • These plants have been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in East Asia and North America.
  • Research has shown that medicinal plants belonging to Acer are highly effective in the treatment of rheumatism, bruises, hemostasis, hepatic disorders, eye disease, and pain, and in detoxification.
  • It can be used to treat rheumatism, hepatic disorders, eye disease, pain, etc. effectively.
  • It has traditionally been used to reduce redness and swelling of the eyes.
  • Stems and roots of maple has been used for the treatment of arthritis, bruises, pain, fractures, and liver diseases and the leaves are used for the treatment of inflammation of the eye.

Other Facts

  • Trident maple is a popular choice for the art of bonsai and responds well to techniques that create leaf reduction and ramification.
  • It is suitable for many style and sizes of bonsai.
  • It can be planted more around residences and commercial landscapes due to its pleasing form and small size.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=837859#null

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=1088

https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=b972

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ACRBU

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-2615419

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acer_buergerianum

https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/ST009

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/2807

https://plants.usda.gov/home/plantProfile?symbol=ACBU4

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