|Turkish hazelnut Quick Facts|
|Scientific Name:||Corylus colurna|
|Origin||Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, and the Balkan Peninsula|
|Shapes||Achene is a small, hard-shelled fruit|
|Taste||Rich, nutty, and slightly sweet taste|
|Health benefits||Heart Health, Improved Blood Pressure, Weight Management, Strong Bones and Teeth, Brain Health, Healthy Digestion, Blood Sugar Regulation, Supports Eye Health, Skin Health, Reduced Risk of Gallstones, Healthy Nervous System|
Turkish hazelnut, English hazelnut, Turkish filbert, Turkish cobnut, Lambert’s cobnut, Filbert, Common hazelnut, Turkish round filbert, European cobnut, Cobnut, Lambert’s filbert, Barcelona nut, Round hazelnut, Turkish cob, European filbert, Turkish cobnut, European hazelnut, Barcelona filbert, Barcelona cobnut, Barcelona hazelnut, Lambert’s nut, Turkish round hazel, and Autumn hazelnut are some of the popular common names of the plants. The name “Corylus” comes from the Greek word “korys,” which means “helmet.” This probably has to do with the shape of the nut, which looks like a hat. The Latin word “colurnus,” which means a type of hazel, is where the word “colurna” comes from. People think it came from the Greek word “kolurnos,” which means “hazel tree.” So, “Corylus colurna” basically means “helmet-shaped hazel tree.” This name describes both the shape of the nut and the shape of the tree. It gives an idea of what this species is like.
Turkish Hazelnuts Facts
|Scientific Name||Corylus colurna|
|Native||Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, and the Balkan Peninsula. Its occurrence on the Balkans covers Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Albania, and Greece. It is mainly distributed in the southern Carpathians of Romania, in Bulgaria on the Balkan Range, Sredna Gora, Rhodope Mountains and in the western and north-eastern forest stands|
|Common Names||Turkish hazelnut, Filbert, European hazelnut, Common hazelnut, Cobnut, Lambert’s filbert, Lambert’s nut, Barcelona nut, Round hazelnut, Autumn hazelnut, English hazelnut, European filbert, European cobnut, Turkish cobnut, Turkish filbert, Lambert’s cobnut, Barcelona filbert, Barcelona cobnut, Barcelona hazelnut, Turkish round hazel, Turkish cob, Turkish cobnut, Turkish round filbert, Turkish round nut, Turkish autumn hazel, Turkish autumn filbert, Turkish autumn nut, Turkish lambert’s nut, Turkish Barcelona nut, Turkish Barcelona filbert, Turkish Cob, Turkish lambert’s cobnut, Turkish Barcelona cobnut, Turkish Barcelona hazelnut, Turkish autumn cobnut, Turkish round cob, Turkish round hazelnut filbert|
|Name in Other Languages||Afrikaans: Turkse haselnoot
Albanian: Arrë Turku, lajthi, Arra turke
Arabic: Bunduq turki (بندق تركي), Al-bunduq al-turki (البندق التركي)
Armenian: Tkhleni tsarranman (Տխլենի ծառանման)
Asturian: Ablanal turca
Azerbaijani: Türk fındığı, Ayı fındığı
Belarusian: Liaščyna drevapadobnaja (ляшчына дрэвападобная)
Bengali: Turki badam (তুর্কি বাদাম), Turki akhroṭa (তুর্কি আখরোট)
Bosnian: Turski lješnjak
Bulgarian: Turska leshnikova yadka (Турска лешникова ядка), Turska leshnik (Турска лешник), turkska leska (туркска леска), Turska leshnikova (Турска лешникова)
Catalan: Avellana turca
Chinese: Tǔ’ěrqí zhēnzi (土耳其榛子), Tǔ’ěrqí zhēn (土耳其榛)
Croatian: Turski lješnjak, drvolika lijeska, megjegja lijeska, Medvjeđa lijeska
Czech: Turecký lískový ořech, Líska turecká,
Danish: Tyrkisk hassel, Tyrkisk hasselnød, Tyrkiske træhassel
Dutch: Turkse hazelnoot, Boomhazelaar, Bosnoot, Hazelnoot van de Levant, Turkse hazelaar, Turkse boomhazelaar
English: Turkish hazelnut, Byzantine filbert, Constantinople-nut, Turkish filbert, Turkish hazel, Clusternut, Constantinople-nut, Hazelnut of Bisanzio, Hazelnut of Costantinopoli, Mediterranean hazel
Esperanto: Turkia korilo
Estonian: Türgi sarapuu pähkel
Filipino: Turko na hazelnut
Finnish: Turkki pähkinä, Turkinpähkinäpensas, nokkapähkinäpensas
French: Noisette turque, Coudrier de Byzance, Coudrier du Levant, Noisetier de Byzance, Noisetier de Turquie, Noisette du Levant, noisetier en arbre
Georgian: Turkuli pishkveli (თურქული ფიშკველი), datvistkhila (დათვისთხილა)
German: Türkische Haselnuss, Baum-Hasel, Türkische Baumhasel, Türkische Hasel, Dicknuss, Türkische Nuss, Zellernuß, Baumhaselnuß
Greek: Tourkikó foudoúki (Τουρκικό φουντούκι), Tourkikí foudoúkia (Τουρκική φουντούκια), Agriofountoukiá (Αγριοφουντουκιά)
Gujarati: Turkī dāruṁ (તુર્કી દારું), Tarkīnī magaphaḷī (તર્કીની મગફળી)
Hausa: Kwanɗo Turki
Hebrew: Egoz turki (אגוז תורקי), Pistuk turki (פיסטוק טורקי)
Hindi: Turkī akharōṭ (तुर्की अखरोट)
Hungarian: Török mogyoró
Icelandic: Tyrkneskur hörkukorn, Turku lazda
Indonesian: Kacang hazelnut Turk
Irish: Cnónra na Tuirce
Italian: Nocciola turca, Nocciola del Levante, Nocciolo di Costantinopoli, Nocciolo mediterraneo, Nocciuolo sugheroso, colurno
Japanese: Toruko hēzerunattsu (トルコヘーゼルナッツ), Toruko no heezeru (ト ルコのヘーゼル), Takisshihashibami (タキッシハシバミ), Toruko no hēzerunattsu (トルコのヘーゼルナッツ)
Kannada: Ṭarki hejlnaṭ (ಟರ್ಕಿ ಹೆಜ್ಲ್ನಟ್)
Korean: Teoki kaesyu-neot (터키 캐슈넛), Teoki hodoo (터키 호두)
Kurdish: Fındıkê Tirki
Latvian: Turku lazdu rieksts, Kokveida lazda, Turku lazda
Lithuanian: Turkijos lazdyno riešutas
Lower Sorbian: Bomowa lěšćina
Macedonian: Turski leshnik (Турски лешник), Diva leska (Дива леска)
Malay: Kacang lebok Turki
Malayalam: Ṭarkki hēsalnaṭṭu (ടർക്കി ഹേസൽനട്ട്)
Maltese: Leżzjoni Turkija, Lewża Torka
Marathi: Turkī badām (तुर्की बदाम), Turkī caurīcī khōbarē (तुर्की चौरीची खोबरे)
Norwegian: Tyrkisk hasselnøtt, Tyrkarhassel
Ossetian: Mængæxsær (Мæнгæхсæр)
Persian: کریلوس کلورنا
Polish: Orzech turecki, leszczyna drzewiasta, leszczyna turecka, Tureckie orzechy laskowe
Portuguese: Avelã turca, Avelã-do-levante, aveleira-da-turquia, aveleira-de-bisâncio
Punjabi: Turkī badām (ਤੁਰਕੀ ਬਦਾਮ)
Romanian: Alună turcească, alun turcesc
Russian: Turetskiy funduk (Турецкий фундук), Leshchina drevovidnaia (Лещина древовидная), Medvezhnii orekh (Медвежий орех), Orekh medvezhnii (Орех медвежий)
Scots Gaelic: Sùgh Sutairceach
Serbian: Turski lešnjak (Турски лешњак), div-leska (див-леска), medveđa leska (медвеђа леска), medžetka (меџетка), turska leska (турска леска), Mečja leska
Slovak: Turecký lieskový oriešok, lieska turecká
Slovenian: Turški lešnik
Spanish: Avellana turca, Avellano de Turquía, Avellano mediterráneo, Avellano de Turquía, Nochizo
Swedish: Turkisk hasselnöt, Turkhassel, Bysantisk hassel, Turkisk hassel, Turkisk nöt
Swahili: Kungu la fundi wa Kituruki, Karanga ya Uturuki
Tamil: Turukki hējalnaṭ (துருக்கி ஹேஜல்நட்), Turukki munthiri (துருக்கி முந்திரி)
Telugu: Ṭarki hējalnaṭ (టర్కి హేజల్నట్), Turkī bādaṁ (తుర్కీ బాదం)
Thai: Hēsēlnạt tūrkī (เฮเซลนัทตุรกี), Plụ̄ak săt turkī (เปลือกสัตว์ตุรกี)
Turkish: Türk fındığı, Ağaç fındığı, Türk kestanesi
Ukrainian: Turetsʹkyy horikh (Турецький горіх), lishchyna vedmezha (ліщина ведмежа), Lishchyna derevovydna (Ліщина деревовидна)
Upper Sorbian: Štomowa lěšćina
Urdu: Turkī bādām (ترکی بادام)
Vietnamese: Hạt phỉ Turki, Hạt phỉ Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ
Welsh: Grawnwin Twrci, Collen Twrci, Cyll Twrci
Yoruba: Eso turkish
|Plant Growth Habit||Medium-sized, semi-shade tolerant deciduous tree|
|Growing Climates||Shady mixed forests, oak and beech forests, mountain forests, usually on limestone; canyons and plateau|
|Soil||Prefer well-drained soils with a pH range of 6 to 7.5. They can adapt to various soil types, including loam, sandy loam, and silt loam. The soil should be rich in organic matter and have good water-holding capacity while allowing excess water to drain easily|
|Plant Size||About 25 to 30 m tall, and diameter at breast height (DBH) of 50 to 60 cm, while in exceptional cases it can reach a DBH up to 170 cm|
|Stem||The main stem, also called the trunk, is the tree’s straight center. It holds the structure together and ties the roots to the branches and the top of the tree|
|Bark||Smooth and relatively thin when the tree is young. As the tree matures, the bark becomes rougher and develops fissures, furrows, and ridges|
|Leaf||Deciduous, rounded, 6–15 cm long and 5–13 cm across, softly hairy on both surfaces, and with a coarsely double-serrate to shallowly lobed margin. The main limbs are quite small in diameter in relationship to the straight trunk|
|Flowering season||April to May|
|Flower||Unisexual, with single-sex catkins; the male pale yellow and 5–10 cm long, the female very small and largely concealed in the buds, with only the bright red 1–3 mm long styles visible. The flowers on female trees are not very visible. On male trees, however, the flowers are visible|
|Fruit Shape & Size||Nut sometimes called “Turkish nuts” about 1–2 cm long, surrounded by a thick, softly spiny and bristly involucre (husk) 3 cm diameter, which encloses all but the tip of the nut; the nuts are borne in tight clusters of 3-8 together, with the involucres fused at the base|
|Seed||It is the part that you can eat, and it is rich, creamy white or pale yellow. The nutty flavor comes from the seed|
|Flavor/Aroma||Rich, nutty, and slightly sweet|
|Taste||Rich, nutty, and slightly sweet taste|
|Plant Parts Used||Leaves, bark, Catkins, Nut Oil|
|Propagation||By seed, Suckers, Layering, Grafting|
|Lifespan||About 20 to 30 years, but under optimal conditions, they can live for several decades|
|Season||September to October|
The Turkish hazelnut is a medium-sized, semi-deciduous tree that grows between 25 and 30 m tall. Depending on the growing factors and how the tree is cared for, the spread or width of the crown can also be in a similar range. A mature Turkish hazelnut tree’s trunk is usually between 50 and 60 cm in width, but it can be bigger in older or more established trees. The branches and top of a tree are mostly held up by the trunk. When young, the crown is thin and columnar, but as the tree gets older, it gets wider and forms a beautiful pyramidal shape that is perfect for putting along an avenue. The bark is a pale grayish-buff color and has a thick, corky feel. Sometimes it comes off.
The plant grows in mixed woods with a lot of shade, oak and beech forests, mountain forests (usually on limestone), canyons, and plateaus. It mostly grows in poor, dry, low-nutrient lime soils, but it can also grow in places with lime and silicate rock. It grows best in soils that drain well and have a pH between 6 and 7.5. They can grow in different kinds of dirt, like loam, sandy loam, and silt loam. The soil should have a lot of organic matter and be able to hold water well, but it should also be easy to drain. Soil needs to drain well to avoid waterlogging, which can cause plant rot and other problems.
Appropriate growing environment for Turkish hazelnut
Turkish hazelnuts thrive in specific growing environments that provide the right conditions for their growth and productivity. Here are the appropriate growing requirements for Turkish hazelnut:
- Climate: Turkish hazelnuts like a climate with warm winters and moderate summers. They do well in places with a Mediterranean climate, which has mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers. They can handle a wide range of temperatures, but they grow best during the growing season when there is no cold.
- Sunlight: To grow well, Turkish walnuts need to be in the sun all day. They need at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunshine every day to grow, bloom, and make nuts as well as they can.
- Soil: Turkish hazelnuts grow best in soils that drain well and have a pH between 6 and 7.5. They can grow in different kinds of dirt, like loam, sandy loam, and silt loam. To keep the dirt from getting too wet, which can cause root rot and other problems, it needs to drain well. Before planting, it’s good to add organic matter like compost to the soil to make it more fertile and stable.
- Watering: The amount of water that Turkish almonds need is about average. Even though they can survive dry times, they need steady moisture during the growing season, especially when the nuts are developing. For proper growth, nut quality, and yield, there must be enough watering, especially during dry times. But you shouldn’t water too much to avoid waterlogging and other problems.
- Pollination: To get a good crop, Turkish hazelnuts need to be cross-pollinated. If you plant at least two compatible types close to each other, the wind or insects will be able to pollinate them more effectively. This makes sure that pollen gets from flower to flower and increases the chances that nuts will grow.
- Pest and Disease Management: For Turkish walnuts to grow well, they need to be protected from pests and diseases in the right way. To keep pests and diseases from hurting the trees and nuts, it is best to keep an eye on them regularly, find them early, and take the right steps to get rid of them, such as using integrated pest management (IPM) methods.
In its early stages of growing, a Turkish hazelnut usually grows a taproot. The taproot is the main, thick root that grows straight down into the ground. It is the tree’s main point of support and helps it reach lower soil layers for water and food. As a Turkish hazelnut tree gets older, it grows a dense network of roots that spread out crosswise from its base. These roots grow in many different ways and mostly live in the top layers of soil. The lateral roots are very important for getting water, minerals, and food from the dirt around the plant.
There are many small root hairs on the side roots. These fine, hair-like structures make the roots bigger, which makes it easier for them to take in water and nutrients. Most of the nutrients are taken in through the root hairs, which also help gases and water move between the roots and the dirt. The Turkish hazelnut can grow roots that aren’t part of the main taproot or the side roots. Adventitious roots grow from parts of the plant that aren’t roots, like the stem or branches, in reaction to the environment or an injury. They help the plant stay in place and take in food.
The main stem, also called the trunk, is the tree’s straight center. It holds the structure together and ties the roots to the branches and the top of the tree. As the tree gets older, the trunk gets bigger and stronger. It has a main base with many branches coming off of it. The leaves, flowers, and fruits on these stems grow in a horizontal direction. The branches add more support to the tree’s general structure and make room for the leaves and structures that help the tree reproduce.
Lenticels are small, raised holes on the surface of the stem that let gas move between the inside of the plant and the outside. On the bark of a Turkish hazelnut stem, lenticels look like dots or long lines. They make it easier for oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other chemicals that the tree needs to live to move from one place to another.
When a tree is young, its bark is often smooth and not very thick. As the tree grows older, its bark gets rougher and forms cracks, furrows, and ridges. As the tree gets older, the roughness of the bark becomes more noticeable. Depending on how old the tree is, the bark will be a different color. When trees are young, the bark is usually greyish brown. As the tree gets older, its color can get darker, turning brown or grayish-black.
The periderm, which is the top layer of bark, protects the tree from the outside world. It is made of dead cork cells that form a waterproof barrier. This helps to stop too much water loss and protects against mechanical damage, pathogens, and weather stresses. Under the outer bark is the inner bark, which is also, called the phloem. The inner bark moves the sugars made by photosynthesis in the leaves to other parts of the tree so that the tree can grow and store energy. It is made up of living parts like sieve tubes, companion cells, and parenchyma cells.
The cambium is a thin layer of rapidly dividing cells that sits between the inner bark (phloem) and the wood (xylem) of a tree. It is the cause of the tree’s secondary growth, which makes the roots and branches thicker over time. Lenticels are small bumps on the surface of the bark that let gas move between the tissues underneath and the outside air. On the bark of the Turkish hazelnut, they look like dots or long lines. Lenticels help gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor move from one place to another.
The leaves are ovate or heart-shaped and have a jagged or serrated edge. They have a sharp point at the top and a round or slightly off-center base. The leaves are alternated along the stems. This means that at each node, only one leaf grows from one side of the stem. The lines in the leaves of the Turkish hazelnut look like feathers. The main vein in the middle of the leaf, called the midrib, goes from the base to the tip. From the midrib, secondary veins branch off and spread out in an arched pattern towards the edges of the leaf. Most of the time, the top is smooth and shiny, while the bottom is a little hairy or “pubescent.” The number of hairs on the underside of a leaf can change based on the weather and how old the leaf is.
There are many layers of tissue in a leaf. The epidermis is the top layer, and it acts as a shield to keep things out. The mesophyll is underneath the skin. It has two main parts: the palisade mesophyll and the spongy mesophyll. The palisade mesophyll is made up of tightly packed cells that help with photosynthesis. The spongy mesophyll, on the other hand, is made up of cells that are spread out and help with gas exchange. Stomata are tiny holes on the surface of a leaf that let gases pass through. Mostly, they let carbon dioxide in and let oxygen and water vapor out. On the bottom side of the leaves of the Turkish hazelnut, there are stomata. The number and location of stomata can change based on things like how much light there is, how humid it is, and how much water is available. The leaf blade is attached to the stem by a thin stalk called the petiole. The petioles of Turkish hazelnut aren’t very long, and they connect the leaf tips to the stems.
Most of the time, Turkish hazelnut flowers are in catkins, which are cylinder-shaped groups of flowers. The catkins are drooping and hang from the tree’s limbs. Each catkin is made up of several separate flowers. The male and female reproductive organs of Turkish hazelnut flowers are both on the same tree. Each flower is small and doesn’t have any blooms. Instead, the flowers have special leaves called bracts that cover the reproductive parts and keep them from getting hurt.
Near the top of the catkins is where the male flowers are. The male reproductive parts, called stamens, are grouped together in each male flower. Each stamen is made up of a thin thread that ends in an anther that makes pollen. The male gametes that are needed for fertilization are in the pollen. Near the bottom of the catkins is where the female flowers are. The pistil is the female sexual organ, and it is part of every female flower. The stigma, which is where pollen sticks, is part of the pistil. The style joins the stigma to the ovary, and the ovary is where the ovules are. Fertilization happens when pollen moves from the anthers to the stigma. This causes the ovary to make eggs.
Flowers are pollinated by the wind, which moves sperm from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers, which are ready to accept it. Because of how this type of pollination works, the flowers don’t have many showy blooms. Most trees bloom in late winter or early spring, before their leaves come out. This makes sure that pollination works well and that the female flowers are ready to get pollen when the male flowers release it.
Achenes, which look like nuts, are the fruit of the Turkish hazelnut. The achene is a small, hard-shelled fruit. Unlike true nuts, it doesn’t split open to let the seed out. The seed inside the achene is what makes the hazelnut. Each hazelnut is covered by a husk, which is a changed bract that grows from the base of the female flower. Most of the time, the husk is green or has a fringe around it. It can be green, dark, or any color in between. Most people eat the nut, which is the part of the Turkish hazelnut that can be eaten. It is usually round or oval and has a hard, woody shell that covers the seed inside. Most of the time, the shell is brown and rough or has grooves. The nutmeat is the part of the hazelnut seed that can be eaten. It is the part that is full of oils, proteins, and flavor. The nutmeat is used in many different kinds of food, like snacks, baked goods, candies, spreads, and more.
The main part of the seed that is eaten is the kernel, which is also known as the nutmeat. It is the part that you can eat, and it is rich, creamy white or pale yellow. The nutty flavor comes from the seed, which is used in many different ways in the kitchen. The testa is the thin, papery seed coat that covers the grain. The seed coat is usually brown and protects the center. It separates the seed from the hard shell. When the hazelnut is shelled, it is taken off.
The embryo is the part of the seed that is not yet a plant. It is found in the kernel. If conditions are right, the baby could turn into a whole new hazelnut tree. The embryo is made up of the radicle, which is the embryo’s root, and the plumule, which is the embryo’s shoot. The cotyledons are the main places in the baby where food is stored. Most hazelnut embryos have two cotyledons, which are the leaves of the seed. These cotyledons store food stocks that feed the growing seedling until it can do its own photosynthesis.
Hazelnuts have been grown in the area that is now Turkey as far back as recorded history goes. Ancient Greeks and Romans loved hazelnuts for their taste, health benefits, and ability to treat illnesses. They were a big part of their foods and were thought to be good for their health in many ways. During the Byzantine Empire, which lasted from the 4th to the 15th centuries, walnuts were still grown and eaten. The Byzantines knew that walnuts were good for their economy and their food, so they used them in many recipes. Hazelnuts were also used in religious rites and rituals of the time.
During the Ottoman Empire (1299–1922), there were more changes in how Turkish walnuts were grown and sold. Hazelnuts became an important crop in the area, especially near Turkey’s Black Sea coast, where the weather and dirt are good for their growth. Hazelnuts became a very important part of Ottoman food, and they were used in many classic dishes and desserts.
In the 20th century, walnuts from Turkey started to be sold in stores. The area of Turkey around the Black Sea became a major producer of hazelnuts, with many trees and places to process the nuts. Turkey is one of the top hazelnut makers in the world because its hazelnuts are known for their quality, flavor, and large supply. Turkish hazelnuts have become an important part of the hazelnut business around the world. At the moment, Turkey is the biggest grower and exporter of hazelnuts. It meets a big part of the world’s demand. Turkish walnuts are very popular because of how they taste, how big they are, and how well they are made. They are used in different kinds of candy, sauces, baked goods, and as a snack on their own.
Varieties of Turkish hazelnut
Turkish hazelnuts are known for their diverse range of varieties, each with its own unique characteristics in terms of size, flavor, and shell thickness. Here are some detailed varieties of Turkish hazelnuts:
- Tombul: It is one of the most well-known and widely grown types of hazelnut in Turkey. It is known for being big, round, and having a great taste. It has a thin shell, which makes it easy to break open and get the seed out. They are often used in candy, baking, and as a snack on their own.
- Palaz: Palaz is another type that stands out. It is prized for being between medium and big in size, oval in shape, and having a unique taste. It has a shell that is about as thick as a pencil, which protects the seed well. They are often used in candy products like chocolate sauces, pralines, and spreads.
- Foşa: It is known for being round, medium to big in size, and having a great taste. They have a shell that is thick enough to protect them but thin enough to break easily. It is used a lot in candy, baking, and as a high-end snack.
- Çakıldak: They are small to medium-sized, round, and have a unique taste. They have a thick shell that makes them harder to crack but protects the seed very well. It is often used to make hazelnut paste, sauces, and some sweets.
- Mincane: Mincane walnuts are known for being long and small to medium in size. They have a thin shell, which makes it easy to break them. Mincane hazelnuts are prized for their delicate flavor and are often used in sweets, baking, and as a topping for cakes and salads.
- Uzunmusa: It has an elongated shape and is about the size of a fist. They have a medium-thick shell, which makes them easy to crack and keeps the kernel safe. It is a popular ingredient in sweets like nougat, pralines, and chocolates filled with hazelnuts.
- Akçakoca: It has a big size and a round shape, which make it very popular. They have a shell that is about as thick as a pencil, which protects the seed well. It is known for having a strong flavor and is often used in sweets, baked goods, and as a high-end snack.
- Ordu: Ordu hazelnuts are prized for being between medium and large in size and oval in shape. They get their name from the area of Ordu in Turkey. They have a thin shell, which makes it easy to break them. It is known for having a sweet, delicate flavor, and it is often used to make sweets like candies, pralines, and hazelnut spreads.
- Sivri: Sivri hazelnuts are easy to tell apart because they are long and medium-sized. They have a shell that is just thick enough to cover the kernel without being too thick. It has a strong flavor that makes it popular in sweets like nougat, caramelized hazelnuts, and nut-filled cakes.
- Foşa Beyazı: They stand out because they are big and round. Their shells are thin, so it’s easy to break them. It is known for having a smooth texture and a strong taste. They are used a lot in the candy business, as well as in baking, nut butters, and high-end cooking.
- Kargalak: Kargalak hazelnuts are known for being in the shape of an oval and being between medium and big in size. They have a thick shell that protects the seed really well. It has a unique, rich flavor, and they are often used to make hazelnut oil, gourmet desserts, and roasted nut mixes.
- Tohumlu: Tohumlu walnuts are unique because they are long and not too big. They have a medium-thick shell, which makes them easy to crack and protects the center. They are valued for their sweet taste and are often used to top desserts, salads, and savory meals.
- Topan: People know that topan walnuts are big and round. They have a shell that is thick enough to protect them but thin enough to break easily. They are highly valued for their rich, sweet taste, and they are often used in candy, baking, and as a high-end snack.
- Foşa Siyahı: Foşa Siyah hazelnuts are round and can be between medium and big in size. They have a thin shell, which makes it easy to break them. They are known for having a strong taste and are often used in sweets, desserts, and fancy dishes.
- Ankara: Ankara hazelnuts are named after the capital city of Turkey. They are oval and can be medium to big in size. They have a medium-thick shell, which makes them easy to crack and keeps the kernel safe. Ankara hazelnuts are popular because of their rich, nutty flavor. They are often used in sweets, baked goods, and as a snack.
- Karafındık: They are easy to spot because they are small to medium-sized and long. They have a thick shell that protects the seed really well. They have a strong taste and are often used to make hazelnut oil, traditional Turkish desserts, and savory meals.
- Mincane Siyahı: Their small to medium size and round shape are what make them stand out. They have a thin shell, which makes it easy to break them. They are valued for their delicate flavor and are often used to top desserts, salads, and savory meals.
- Kalınkara: Their oval form and medium to large size make them stand out. They have a thick shell that protects the seed really well. They have a strong flavor and are often used in candy, baking, and as a high-end snack.
Health benefits of Turkish hazelnut
Turkish hazelnuts provide a variety of health benefits due to their nutrient composition. Here are the health benefits of Turkish hazelnuts in more detail:
1. Heart Health
It is known that Turkish walnuts are good for your heart. They have a lot of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats, like oleic acid, which can help lower bad cholesterol (LDL) and raise good cholesterol (HDL), lowering the risk of heart disease. The fact that hazelnuts have vitamins and other phytochemicals also helps keep the heart healthy.
2. Antioxidant Powerhouse
There are many antioxidants in Turkish hazelnuts, such as vitamin E and phenolic substances. Free radicals can cause oxidative stress in the body, which can lead to chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease. These antioxidants help protect the body from this stress.
3. Improved Blood Pressure
There is a lot of potassium in Turkish walnuts and not much sodium. Potassium is known to help lower blood pressure by counteracting the effects of salt and promoting a healthy fluid balance.
4. Aids in Weight Management
Even though they are high in calories, Turkish walnuts can help you control your weight. Protein, fiber, and good fats work together to make you feel full and stop you from eating too much. The fiber also helps the body digest food and keep a healthy weight.
5. Enhanced Nutrient Absorption
Healthy fats in hazelnuts, especially vitamin E, can help fat-soluble vitamins like vitamins A; D, E, and K get into the body. If you eat hazelnuts with other foods that are high in nutrients, you can get the most out of these important vitamins.
6. Strong Bones and Teeth
Minerals like magnesium and phosphorus are important for healthy bones and teeth, and Turkish walnuts are a good source of these minerals. Along with calcium and vitamin D, these chemicals help make bones strong and dense.
7. Brain Health
There are many nutrients in hazelnuts that are good for the brain. Vitamin E and other antioxidants in hazelnuts protect brain cells from damage caused by free radicals. Also, walnuts are a good source of B vitamins like foliate and vitamin B6, which are important for brain health and keeping your mood stable.
8. Nutritional Powerhouse
Turkish walnuts are full of vitamins and minerals, like foliate, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc. They are also high in nutrients. Adding walnuts to your diet can help make sure you get the nutrients you need for good health.
9. Promotes Healthy Digestion
Turkish walnuts have a lot of fiber, which helps keep your digestive system healthy. Fiber adds bulk to poop, helps the bowels move regularly, and keeps people from getting constipated. It also helps good bacteria grow in the gut, which is important for a healthy micro biome.
10. Blood Sugar Regulation
Turkish hazelnuts help keep blood sugar in check because they are high in fiber and have good fats. The fiber slows down how quickly glucose is absorbed into the body. This keeps blood sugar from going up and down quickly. This can be especially helpful for people who already have diabetes or are at risk of getting it.
11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Many of the bioactive substances in hazelnuts, such as flavonoids and other phytochemicals have anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic inflammation is linked to a number of diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. Adding walnuts to your diet might help your body have less inflammation.
12. Supports Eye Health
Turkish hazelnuts are good for your eyes because they have antioxidants like vitamin E, lutein, and zeaxanthin. These compounds help protect the eyes from oxidative damage caused by exposure to sunlight and age-related degeneration. This lowers the chance of conditions like cataracts and macular degeneration.
13. Skin Health
Turkish hazelnuts are good for the health of your face because they have antioxidants and healthy fats. Vitamin E, in particular, helps nourish the skin, makes it more flexible, and protects it from damage caused by things like smog and UV rays.
14. Improved Cognitive Function
The nutrients in Turkish hazelnuts help keep the brain healthy and help it work well. Vitamin E, for example, has been linked to a lower chance of memory loss. Hazelnuts also contain foliate and other B vitamins that help keep the brain healthy and make neurotransmitters.
15. Reduced Risk of Gallstones
Research shows that eating nuts, like hazelnuts, on a regular basis may help lower the risk of getting gallstones. Because hazelnuts are high in fiber and have good fats, they may help the gallbladder work well and prevent stones from forming.
16. Anti-Cancer Properties
Even though more research is needed, early studies have shown that walnuts may help fight cancer. Antioxidants and other bioactive substances in hazelnuts, like ellagic acid and phytosterols, have been shown to slow the growth of cancer cells and lower the risk of some cancers.
17. Supports a Healthy Nervous System
The B vitamins in Turkish hazelnuts, like thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B6, are important for a healthy nervous system. These chemicals help nerves work, help make neurotransmitters, and help keep the brain healthy as a whole.
18. Anti-Aging Effects
Turkish hazelnuts have antioxidants that protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. This helps people age in a better way. They can help lessen the look of wrinkles and fine lines, make the skin more elastic, and make the skin look younger.
19. Reduces Oxidative Stress
The antioxidants in Turkish hazelnuts, like vitamin E, help lower oxidative stress in the body. This oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, and it can make chronic diseases like cancer, heart disease, and conditions tied to ageing worse.
20. Reduced risk of chronic diseases
Antioxidants like vitamin E and phenolic compounds, which are found in hazelnuts, help lower inflammation and oxidative stress in the body. Chronic diseases like some types of cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s are less likely to happen if these things are true.
Culinary uses of Turkish hazelnut
Turkish hazelnuts have a rich culinary history and are widely used in various dishes and preparations. Here are some detailed culinary uses of Turkish hazelnuts:
- Snacking: Turkish walnuts are often eaten on their own as a healthy and filling snack. You can eat them raw or roast them. Either way, they have a nice crunch and a slightly sweet, nutty taste.
- Baking and Desserts: Turkish hazelnuts are often used in sweets and baked goods. They are often used in baked goods like cakes, cookies, pies, pralines, and truffles. You can use hazelnut flour or ground hazelnuts in place of gluten when baking.
- Hazelnut Butter and Spreads: Hazelnuts from Turkey are used to make tasty spreads and butters. You can spread these on toast, use them to fill candies, or add them to different recipes to give them a creamy and nutty taste.
- Nut Milk: Hazelnuts from Turkey can be used to make nut milk at home. By mixing soaked hazelnuts with water and then straining the mixture, you can make a creamy hazelnut milk alternative that doesn’t contain any dairy and is great for drinking or cooking.
- Salads and Side Dishes: You can chop or toast Turkish hazelnuts and use them as a crunchy topping for salads. They add flavor and texture. They are also a great way to add a nutty and salty flavor to side meals like roasted vegetables, grains, and pilafs.
- Nutty Sauces and Dressings: Turkish hazelnuts can be used to make tasty sauces and salads when they are ground or crushed. They can be mixed with herbs, spices, and other ingredients to make creamy hazelnut sauces that go well with pasta, roasted veggies, and grilled meats.
- Garnish and Decoration: Turkish walnuts are often used as a garnish or a way to decorate food. They can be finely chopped and sprinkled on sweets, added to ice cream sundaes, or used to decorate cakes and pastries, giving them a nice look and a delicious crunch.
- Traditional Turkish Cuisine: Most classic Turkish dishes have a lot of hazelnuts in them. For example, they are a key part of the Turkish dessert baklava, which is very famous. Other Turkish treats, like kadayif and helva, also use hazelnuts.
- Hazelnut Praline: Hazelnut praline, a sweet and crunchy candy, is often made with hazelnuts from Turkey. The hazelnuts are caramelized with sugar and then ground into a paste or crushed to make a tasty topping or filling for pastries, candies, and other sweets.
- Hazelnut Spread: Nutella, a well-known hazelnut spread, is made with a lot of Turkish hazelnuts. They are roasted, ground, and mixed with cocoa powder, sugar, and other things to make a smooth, creamy spread that can be used on toast, pancakes, waffles, and as a filling in desserts.
- Hazelnut Flour: Ground Turkish walnuts can be used instead of flour because they don’t have gluten. Hazelnut flour gives baked goods like cakes, cookies, and muffins a rich, nutty flavor. It also makes the texture moist and soft.
- Hazelnut Oil: Hazelnuts from Turkey can be pressed to get their oil. Hazelnut oil has a light, nutty flavor and is often used as finishing oil or in salad dressings. It can also be used to add a hint of nuttiness to baking and cooking.
- Hazelnut Crusts: Crushed Turkish hazelnuts can be mixed with butter or honey to make tasty crusts for cheesecakes, tarts, and pies. The hazelnut crust gives these sweets a unique taste of nuts and a wonderful crunch.
- Hazelnut Toppings: When chopped or roasted, Turkish hazelnuts make great toppings for many different kinds of food. They add a nutty flavor and a different texture to salads, yoghurt, muesli or roasted veggies.
- Hazelnut Liqueur: Alcohol, such as vodka or whisky, is mixed with Turkish hazelnuts to make hazelnut liqueur. People often drink this liquor on its own, add it to cocktails, or use it in desserts and coffee drinks.
- Hazelnut Coffee: Turkish walnuts have been used to flavor coffee for a long time. Hazelnut sauce or ground hazelnuts can be added to coffee to make a rich and fragrant brew with a hazelnut flavor.
- Nut Butters: Ground or processed Turkish hazelnuts can be made into tasty nut butters that are smooth and creamy. People like to spread hazelnut butter on toast or sandwiches or use it as a dip for fruits and veggies.
- Confections and Chocolates: Hazelnuts from Turkey are often used in sweets and candies. They can be covered in chocolate, used as stuffing for truffles, or mixed into nougat and caramel-based treats.
- Baked Goods: Turkish walnuts are a great ingredient for many baked goods. You can chop them up and add them to cookies, brownies, muffins, and bread to give them more flavor and structure.
- Granola and Bars: Turkish hazelnuts can be used to make homemade cookies and energy bars. They can be chopped or crushed. They add a pleasant crunch and a nutty flavor that goes well with oats, dried fruits, and sweeteners.
- Ice Cream and Frozen Treats: Turkish hazelnuts can be used to make homemade ice cream, gelato, or sorbet with a hazelnut flavor. They can be mixed into the base or added as crunchy add-ins.
- Roasted Vegetables: You can chop up Turkish hazelnuts and sprinkle them on roasted veggies to give them a nice crunch and nuttiness. They go especially well with Brussels sprouts, carrots, and sweet potatoes that have been baked.
- Stuffing and Pilafs: You can put Turkish hazelnuts in stuffing’s for chicken, game, or vegetarian recipes. They can also be used to add texture and a rich, nutty flavor to rice pilafs.
- Nut Crusts: Ground Hazelnuts from Turkey can be used to make a tasty crust for pies and tarts. They can be used as a base for both sweet and savory meals when mixed with butter or another binder.
Other uses of Turkish hazelnut
In addition to the culinary, confectionery, and cosmetic uses mentioned earlier, Turkish hazelnuts have several other applications. Here are some more uses of Turkish hazelnut
- Animal Feed: Animal feed can be made from things like the shells and skins of hazelnuts. They are a good source of fiber and can be added to feed for animals, poultry, and pets.
- Aromatherapy: In aromatherapy, hazelnut oil is often used as base oil. It is used to dilute essential oils before massaging them into the skin or putting them in diffusers.
- Art and Crafts: Hazelnuts with their shells still on can be used for arts and crafts. They can be painted, decorated, or used as natural parts of art projects.
- Soil Erosion Control: Hazelnut trees have strong root systems that help keep the soil stable and stop it from washing away. In some places, hazelnut farms are set up to stop soil erosion and make the land better.
- Traditional and Cultural Uses: In Turkey, hazelnuts have a special place in culture and are used in ceremonies, holidays, and celebrations. During holidays, they are often given as gifts or used in traditional recipes.
- Natural Dye: The hazelnut shells can be used to make natural dyes. When used to dye linens, yarns, or other things, they can make shades of brown, tan, and even dark green.
- Woodworking: Hazelnut wood is hard and long-lasting, so it can be used in woodworking projects. It is often used to make small projects, tool handles, or things to decorate with.
- Smoking: Hazelnut shells can be used to smoke meats, fish, or veggies in a natural and tasty way. The shells give the food a strong smell and taste of smoke.
- Biofuel: Because hazelnut shells are high in cellulose, they can be used to make energy. You can use them as a source of renewable energy to heat your home or make power.
- Horticulture and Gardening: You can use hazelnut shells as mulch or to cover the ground in your yard. They help keep water in the soil, stop weeds from growing, and keep the earth warm. Also, the shells of hazelnuts can be used in hydroponic setups to help certain plants grow.
- Natural Exfoliant: Because of how they feel, ground hazelnut shells can be used as a natural exfoliant in skin care items. They help get rid of dead skin cells and gently scrub the face.
- Home Decor: Hazelnuts, especially those with their shells still on, can be used in many ways to decorate your home. They can be made into wreaths, used as table center pieces, or put in pots or bowls to make them look nice.
- Aesthetic and Spa Treatments: Hazelnut oil is often used in beauty items and spa treatments because it is known to moisturize and nourish the skin. It is used in creams, lotions, massage oils, and face masks to help keep the skin healthy and make the experience feel rich.
- Hazelnut Husk Charcoal: The shells of Turkish hazelnuts can be turned into charcoal by being burned. Because it is porous, hazelnut husk charcoal can be used to filter water and air in a way that is natural and good for the environment.
- Hazelnut Shell Jewelry: If you clean and polish hazelnut shells, you can use them to make necklaces, earrings, and bands that are both unique and good for the environment.
Side effects of Turkish hazelnut
Turkish hazelnuts are generally safe and well-tolerated by most people. However, it’s important to note that some individuals may experience side effects or allergic reactions. Here are a few potential side effects of Turkish hazelnuts:
- Allergic Reactions: There are a lot of people who are allergic to hazelnuts, and their reactions can range from mild to serious. Some of the signs of an allergy are itching, hives, swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat, trouble breathing, stomach pain, vomiting, or, in the worst cases, anaphylactic. People who are allergic to nuts shouldn’t eat hazelnuts or things that contain hazelnuts.
- Digestive Issues: Some people may have trouble with their stomachs after eating walnuts. This can cause stomach pain, bloating, gas, or diarrhea, among other things. Most of the time, these symptoms are mild and temporary, but if they last longer than a few days or get worse, you should see a doctor.
- Interactions with Medications: Some medicines can react badly with hazelnuts. If you take anticoagulant (blood-thinning) drugs like warfarin, the high amount of vitamin K in hazelnuts may make the drugs less effective. If you are taking any kind of medicine, it is important to talk to your doctor before eating hazelnuts.
- Nutrient Overload: Even though walnuts are healthy, they are also high in calories and fat. If you eat too many hazelnuts, especially when you eat them with other high-calorie foods, you may gain weight and get less of some nutrients. Adding walnuts to your diet should be done in moderation.
- Contamination and Rancidity: Like other nuts, hazelnuts can sometimes have mould, bacteria, or other dangerous things on them. Also, if hazelnuts aren’t kept properly, they can go rancid, which makes them taste bad and can cause digestive problems. Hazelnuts should be kept in a cool, dry place and checked for signs of going bad before being eaten.
- Oral Allergy Syndrome: When they eat hazelnuts, some people who are allergic to birch pollen may get mouth allergy syndrome. This can make the mouth, lips, or throat itch or feel tingly. Most of the time, it happens because some proteins in hazelnuts and birch pollen mix with each other.
- Oxalate Content: Oxalates are natural chemicals that are found in hazelnuts. People who are prone to kidney stones or have a history of oxalate-related disorders could get more kidney stones or have their current conditions get worse if they eat too many hazelnuts.
- Nutrient Interactions: Hazelnuts are a good source of many nutrients, including minerals like calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Even though these minerals are usually good for you, eating a lot of hazelnuts along with mineral supplements could cause imbalances or overdoses, which could have affects you didn’t expect.
- Pesticide Residues: Pesticides can be used on hazelnuts, just like they can be used on other foods. Even though laws and quality control are meant to reduce the amount of pesticides left on hazelnuts, it is possible that some of them may still have traces of pesticides. If you wash hazelnuts well before eating them, there may be less poison on them.