Brussels sprouts – Brassica oleracea Gemmifera

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Brussels sprouts - Brassica oleracea Gemmifera

Brussels sprout Quick Facts
Name: Brussels sprout
Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea Gemmifera
Origin Grown 400 years ago in the vicinity of Brussels, Belgium
Colors Sage green
Shapes Round sprouts are about walnut size, 1-1.5 inches in diameter
Taste Nutty, earthy taste
Calories 28 Kcal./cup
Major nutrients Vitamin K (91.17%)
Vitamin C (53.78%)
Iron (11.75%)
Vitamin B9 (11.75%)
Vitamin B6 (10.69%)
Health benefits Help prevent Cancer, Promote Digestive Health, Promote Healthy Skin,Weight Loss Benefits, Improves Brain function, Support healthy pregnancy, Help prevent heart diseases, Anti-aging Benefits, Help Prevent Osteoporosis, Helps prevent skin blistering
Brassica oleracea gemmifera or Brussels sprouts, are correlated to other known vegetables in the Brassica genus such as broccoli, kale, cabbage kohlrabi and cauliflower. They are part of the cruciferae or mustard family, so recognized because of a four-part flower in the shape of a cross. In character, they appear much like a small form of a cabbage; however they are way dissimilar by flavor. The flavor of cabbage is quite dull, whereas Brussels sprouts have a very delicate, unique taste. Jade Cross, Catskill, Maximus, Early Morn Dwarf Improved, Breda, Red Vein, Churchill Hybrid Brussels Sprouts, Red Ball Brussels Sprouts, Bubbles and Rubine are some popular varieties of Brussels sprouts.

Plant

Brussels sprouts are an annual plant sized about 90 cm tall and is found growing in cool weather and light frosting environment. Normally it prefers fertile, organic-rich garden soil with plenty drainage. Roots are usually shallow. Stems are light grayish green in color about 2 to 3 feet tall. It has simple, alternate leaves, round to heart-shaped with long petioles; they are light green to deep grayish-green in color. Leaf axils develop around the stem and they also make the sprouts through the bottom to the peak. They take too much time to develop, however they are really worth the wait. Flowers are yellow colored and are perfect with both male and female parts and are borne in terminal racemes. It is found blooming from May to August.

Vegetable

Brussels sprouts are tender round sprouts walnut sized vegetable only 1 to 1.5 inches in diameter—the smaller the head, the sweeter the taste. They must be dense, firm, and green, along with minimal marks and torn or yellowing leaves. Try to select sprouts of similar size so they will cook evenly. Brussels sprouts are usually sage green in color. It has delicate, nutty flavor and is nutty, earthy in taste. Brussels sprouts should never be overcooked. Overcooking can make them turn mushy and causes them to give off a nasty sulfurous smell.

Pods

Fruit of the Brussels sprouts pant is called a silique which is long edible pod 4.5-10 cm long and 3-6 mm wide and consists of 20 to 60 seeds.  Mature siliques frequently dehisce as the pods turn brown at maturity. Seeds are usually dark to purplish brown colored and are small and round in shape.

History

Brussels sprout is first grown during late medieval or renaissance Europe in what is now Belgium, and then called Flanders. It was later transported to the United States within the mid-nineteenth century and began to be seriously cultivated there in the mid-twentieth century. It is now cultivated all over Europe and the United States. California is the biggest Brussels sprout producer in the United States.

Nutritional Value

Apart from their nutty, earthy taste Brussels sprout is a good source of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Consuming 78g of Brussels sprout offers 109.4 µg of Vitamin K, 48.4 mg of Vitamin C, 0.94 mg of Iron, 47 µg of Vitamin B9, 0.139 mg of Vitamin B6, 0.177 mg of Manganese and 0.065 mg of Copper. Moreover many Amino acids like 0.022 g of Tryptophan, 0.071 g of Threonine, 0.078 g of Isoleucine, 0.089 g of Leucine and 0.09 g of Lysine are also found in 78g of Brussels sprouts.

Nutritional value of Brussels Sprouts
Serving Size: 1 Cup, 78 g

Calories 28 Kcal. Calories from Fat 3.51 Kcal.

Proximity Amount % DV
Water 69.34 g N/D
Energy 28 Kcal N/D
Energy 117 kJ N/D
Protein 1.99 g 3.98%
Total Fat (lipid) 0.39 g 1.11%
Ash 0.74 g N/D
Carbohydrate 5.54 g 4.26%
Total dietary Fiber 2 g 5.26%
Soluble dietary fiber 0.93 g N/D
Insoluble dietary fiber 1.07 g N/D
Total Sugars 1.36 g N/D

Minerals Amount % DV
Calcium, Ca 28 mg 2.80%
Iron, Fe 0.94 mg 11.75%
Magnesium, Mg 16 mg 3.81%
Phosphorus, P 44 mg 6.29%
Potassium, K 247 mg 5.26%
Sodium, Na 16 mg 1.07%
Zinc, Zn 0.26 mg 2.36%
Copper, Cu 0.065 mg 7.22%
Manganese, Mn 0.177 mg 7.70%
Selenium, Se 1.2 µg 2.18%

Vitamins Amount % DV
Water soluble Vitamins
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.083 mg 6.92%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.062 mg 4.77%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 0.473 mg 2.96%
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 0.197 mg 3.94%
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.139 mg 10.69%
Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic acid) 47 µg 11.75%
Folic Acid 47 µg N/D
Folate, DEF 47 µg N/D
Choline 31.7 mg 5.76%
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 48.4 mg 53.78%
Fat soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A, RAE 30 µg 4.29%
Vitamin A, IU 604 IU N/D
Beta Carotene 363 µg N/D
Betaine 0.2 mg N/D
Lutein + zeaxanthin 1006 µg N/D
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.34 mg 2.27%
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 109.4 µg 91.17%

Lipids Amount % DV
Fatty acids, total saturated 0.08 g N/D
Caprylic acid 8:00 (octanoic acid) 0.002 g N/D
Myristic acid  14:00(Tetradecanoic acid) 0.001 g N/D
Palmitic acid 16:00 (Hexadecanoic acid) 0.073 g N/D
Stearic acid 18:00 (Octadecanoic acid) 0.004 g N/D
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated 0.03 g N/D
Palmitoleic acid 16:1 (hexadecenoic acid) 0.003 g N/D
Oleic acid 18:1 (octadecenoic acid) 0.027 g N/D
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated 0.199 g N/D
Linoleic acid 18:2 (octadecadienoic acid) 0.062 g N/D
Linolenic acid 18:3 (Octadecatrienoic acid) 0.135 g N/D
Tetracosatetraenoic acid 20:4 0.002 g N/D

Amino Acids Amount % DV
Tryptophan 0.022 g 5.00%
Threonine 0.071 g 4.03%
Isoleucine 0.078 g 4.67%
Leucine 0.089 g 2.41%
Lysine 0.09 g 2.69%
Methionine 0.019 g N/D
Cystine 0.012 g N/D
Phenylalanine 0.058 g N/D
Valine 0.091 g 4.31%
Arginine 0.119 g N/D
Histidine 0.044 g 3.57%
Flavanones
Naringenin 1.5 mg N/D
Flavones
Luteolin 0.4 mg N/D
Flavonols
Kaempferol 0.7 mg N/D
Quercetin 3.4 mg N/D

*Above mentioned Percent Daily Values (%DVs) are based on 2,000 calorie diet intake. Daily values (DVs) may be different depending upon your daily calorie needs. Mentioned values are recommended by a U.S. Department of Agriculture. They are not healthbenefitstimes.com recommendations. Calculations are based on average age of 19 to 50 years and weighs 194 lbs.

Health benefits of Brussels sprouts

Brussels sprouts are a cool weather vegetable that grows mainly in fertile, organic-rich garden soil along with sufficient drainage.  The best-tasting, most tender sprouts are full of important vitamins, minerals and other nutrients which are essential to remain fit and active.

1. Promotes healthy skin

Brussels sprouts are wonderful source of vitamin C, the body’s main water-soluble antioxidant. Vitamin C promotes immune function as well the production of collagen, a protein that forms the ground substance of body structures including the skin, connective tissue, cartilage, and tendons. Apart from that Brussels sprouts are good source of vitamin A; both of these nutrients play significant roles in defending the body from infection and promoting supple, glowing skin. Brussels sprouts are consists of sufficient quantities of omega-3 fatty acid, which supports the skin health.(1)

2. Promotes digestive health

Including Brussels sprouts in your diet will certainly increase intake of both soluble and insoluble fiber. Dietary fiber helps to nurture the cells lining the walls of your colon, which encourages colon health. Research have proven that frequent consumption of Brussels sprouts are beneficial for their intestinal flora and the production of short chain fatty acids, both of which encourage better digestive health.(2)

3. Helps prevent cancer

According to research conducted by Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, sulforaphane – a compound present in cruciferous vegetables like Brussels sprouts, broccoli and bok choy has powerful anti-cancer properties. Cancer preventing compound sulforaphane is found adequately in Brussels which could be major elements in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer.(3)

Apart from that Cruciferous vegetables are also rich in nutrients like carotenoids (lutein, beta-carotene, zeaxanthin), Vitamin C, E and K, folate and different minerals which helps to fright cancer. They are also good fiber source.(4)

Research done by Rutgers researchers recommend combining turmeric and brussels sprouts, which shows significant cancer-preventive qualities in animal test. Naturally occurring substance called phenethyl isothiocyanates which is actually the key to prevents cancer and effective in dealing with established prostate cancers are found in Brussels sprouts.(5), (6)

4. Helps prevent skin blistering

Brussels sprouts consists of considerable amount of Sulforaphane, which is proven effective in preventing severe blistering and skin breakage due to the uncommon and potentially fatal genetic disease Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (EBS). In animal test, mice was treated with sulforaphane from Brussels sprouts and discovered notable improvement right after four days, more than 85% treated mice are alive and blister free. (7)

5. Helps prevent osteoporosis

Brussels sprouts consist of adequate amount of Vitamin K, with over 91% of your daily value in every half cup (78 g). Sufficient vitamin K is needed so as to stimulate the Gla-protein osteocalcin, which binds the bone minerals to make strong bones. With inadequate vitamin K, bones can’t hold on to vital calcium, which results in osteoporosis. To make matters worse, the calcium go somewhere, so it enters the bloodstream, where it result in stiffening arteries. Thankfully, Brussels sprouts offer a high dose of Vitamin K which is the effective means for protecting your bones from osteoporosis.(8)

6. Anti-aging benefits

Sufficient quantity of antioxidant as well as immune boosting Vitamin C is found in Brussels sprout. Vitamin C helps to protect the effects of sun exposure simply by reducing the damage caused by free radicals, smoke, a harmful byproduct of sunlight and pollution. Free radicals destroys the collagen and elastin and result in wrinkles and other signs of aging. Therefore make sure that your diet includes sufficient amount of Vitamin C rich foods like brussels sprouts so that you can easily repair the damage caused by oxidation. About Half cup of cooked Brussels sprouts contains a massive 53% of daily vitamin C needs!

7. Helps prevent heart diseases

Research has proven that frequent intake of cruciferous vegetable like Brussels sprout is related with decreased chance of cardiovascular disease mortality.  (9)

Brussels sprouts consist of Vitamin C, K as well as many other essential antioxidants and minimal amount omega 3 fatty acids. All these vitamins, antioxidants and omega 3s work collectively to keep arteries clear from dangerous plague buildup, fight high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, increase blood flow and maintain strong, healthy blood vessel. These significant benefits decrease the chance of heart attack and other cardiovascular problems that affect millions of people every year.

8. Supports healthy pregnancy

Brussels sprouts consist of higher amount of Vitamin B9 also called folate or folic acid. It is a naturally occurring B vitamin which is essential for the formation of red and white blood cells in bone marrow, essential for conversion of carbohydrate into energy and for production of RNA and DNA. Apart from that sufficient amount of folate is required during infancy, adolescence and pregnancy. While pregnant adequate folate is required to protect against miscarriage and neural tube defects in fetus. Research also concluded that father’s folate status just before conception is equally important. Research in McGill University concluded that paternal folate deficiency in mice results in 30% higher chances of various birth defects compared to offspring with no paternal folate deficiencies.(10)

Brussels sprouts also consist of iron which is important during pregnancy. During pregnancy women required about twice amount of iron compared to before because body uses iron to make additional blood for baby. However about 50% of pregnant women don’t get sufficient amount of iron. Consuming iron rich foods like brussels sprouts is recommended to keep your iron level in check.(11)

9. Improves brain function

Green vegetables like Brussels sprouts consists of many B Vitamins like Vitamin B6 which is also known as pyridoxine, which has shown beneficial in maintaining healthy brain functions. Different initial research has shown that Vitamin B6 have several positive effects in on neurological conditions like chronic pain, seizures, depression, Parkinson’s disease and many more. Vitamin B6 helps the body to make several neurotransmitters which helps to carry signals from one nerve cell to another. It is essential for normal brain function and development, and help body to make hormones norepinephrine and serotine which normally effect mood, and melatonin, which helps control the body clock.(12)

Meanwhile Vitamin B6 present in Brussels Sprouts also plays important role in synthesizing antibodies which are essential for fighting numerous diseases.

10. Helps weight loss

Frequent consumption of Brussels sprouts is extremely beneficial for losing weight. Brussels sprouts are very low in calories (half cup 78 grams of boiled and drained Brussels sprouts weigh in at about 28 kilo calories and 5.26 grams Dietary Fiber), and trace amount of fat. Similarly huge amount of Vitamin C in Brussels sprout helps the body to burn fat during moderate physical exercise. Sufficient amount of Vitamin C helps to increase body fat oxidation during moderate or intensity exercise.(13)

Researcher from Arizona State University discovered that exercisers burned more fat once they were given 500 mg of Vitamin C in pill form every single day for a month than those who didn’t up their intake. How much do you need for slim-down help? You can take smaller amount of Vitamin C pills or no pills in case you are consuming sufficient amount of Vitamin C rich fruits and vegetables like Brussels sprouts every day. My personal recommendation is drink one glass of Hot lemon before exercise and include half cup Brussels sprouts in breakfast to lose weight in organic way.(14)

Brussels-sprouts-Health-benefits

How to Eat

  • Buds are cooked by steaming, boiling, stir frying, roasting and grilling.
  • Brussels sprouts can be used as an alternative while cooking.
  • They can be stir-fried, roasted, or made into soup.
  • They can be boiled, or shredded and eaten raw in salads or stir-fries.
  • Roasted and salted sprouts are one of the preferred snacks across Europe.
  • Blanched sprouts are mixed along with other vegetables like mushrooms, green beans and carrot.
  • Sprout is used as favorite add on chicken casseroles.
  • Slice them thin and mix in raw with salad greens
  • Pan fry sliced Brussels sprouts to get a crunchier texture.

Precaution

  • Brussels sprouts consists of goitrogens, that may cause swelling of thyroid gland and must be avoided in individuals with thyroid dysfunction

Brussels sprouts – Brassica oleracea Gemmifera

Brussels sprouts is a nutritive annual vegetable found growing in cool weather and prefers fertile, organic-rich garden soil. Apart from its nutty, earthy taste it is full of important minerals, vitamins and nutrition which are essential in our regular lifestyle.

Name Brussels sprout
Scientific Name Brassica oleracea Gemmifera
Native Grown 400 years ago in the vicinity of Brussels, Belgium.
Plant Growth Habit Annual
Growing Climate Require cool weather and light frosting environments.
Soil Fertile, organic-rich garden soil with ample drainage
Plant Size 90 cm Tall
Root Shallow root
Stem Light grayish green in color
Leaf Simple, alternate leaves are round to heart-shaped with long petioles; they are light green to deep grayish-green in color
Flowering Season May to August
Flower Perfect with male and female parts and borne in terminal racemes, yellow colored
Sprouts  shape & size Round sprouts are about walnut size, 1-1.5 inches in diameter.
Sprout Color Sage green in color
Sprout Flavor/aroma Delicate, nutty flavour
Sprout Taste Nutty, earthy taste
Fruit Fruit is called a silique that is a long edible pod 4.5-10 cm long and 3-6 mm wide, contain 20 to 60 seeds.  Mature siliques often dehisce as the pods turn brown at maturity.
Seed Dark to purplish brown colored and  are small and round in shape
Varieties/Types Jade Cross, Rubine, Catskill, Maximus, Breda, Red Vein, Red Ball Brussels Sprouts,  Churchill Hybrid Brussels Sprouts, Bubbles, Early Morn Dwarf Improved
Season September to mid-February
Major Nutrition Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 109.4 µg (91.17%)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 48.4 mg (53.78%)
Iron, Fe 0.94 mg (11.75%)
Vitamin B9 (Folate, Folic acid) 47 µg (11.75%)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.139 mg (10.69%)
Manganese, Mn 0.177 mg (7.70%)
Copper, Cu 0.065 mg (7.22%)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 0.083 mg (6.92%)
Phosphorus, P 44 mg (6.29%)
Choline 31.7 mg (5.76%)
Health Benefits
  • Help prevent Cancer
  • Promote Digestive Health
  • Promote Healthy Skin
  • Weight Loss Benefits
  • Improves Brain function
  • Support healthy pregnancy
  • Help prevent heart diseases
  • Anti-aging Benefits
  • Help Prevent Osteoporosis
  • Helps prevent skin blistering
Calories in 1cup (78gm) 28 Kcal

Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera ) Scientific Classification

Scientific name Brassica oleracea Gemmifera
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Order Capparales
Family Brassicaceae ⁄ Cruciferae
Genus Brassica L.
Species Brassica oleracea L
Super division Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Sub Class Dilleniidae

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brussels_sprout

http://www.learn2grow.com/plants/brassica-oleracea-gemmifera-group/

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mv034

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Brussels_sprout

http://www.delange.org/Brussels_Sprouts_Brassica_oleracea_Gemmifera_cultivar_group_Arizona/Brussels_Sprouts_Brassica_oleracea_Gemmifera_cultivar_group_Arizona.htm

 

 

 

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