Facts about False Barley

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False Barley Quick Facts
Name: False Barley
Scientific Name: Hordeum murinum
Origin Central Europe, North Africa, western Asia, and the Caucasus region
Colors Brown
Shapes Dry fruit - caryopsis
False barley scientifically known as Hordeum murinum is a common weed in areas of human disturbance belonging to Poaceae ⁄ Gramineae (Grass family).The plant is native to Central Europe, North Africa, western Asia, and the Caucasus region. It has naturalized in North America, South America, Australia, and New Zealand.  It is supposed to have originated around sea sides, sandy riverbanks, and animal watering holes. It is now an established weed in the southwestern Flora region and other distributed locations. The records in Alaska are from the Anchorage area. Prostrate plants are related with grazing. Hare barley may have reached in California with Spanish settlers and is more common than Mediterranean barley in disturbed, dry upland areas. Some of the well-known common names of the plant are false barley, Mouse barley, Wall barley, Wild barley, Farmer’s foxtail, bulbous barley, way barley, Smooth barley, Hare barley, way bentgrass and also foxtail.

Wall barley is an annual grass common in central, southern and eastern England, and scattered elsewhere. It is found on waste and rough ground and barish patches in rough grassland. It occurs on the margins of cultivated fields. Distribution is related both to the availability of ruderal habitats and to climate. Frequency decreases with increasing rainfall combined with decreasing temperatures, although, it can cope with greater rainfall if temperatures are higher. In ruderal situations it spreads further into cooler wetter regions by taking advantage of features such as the base walls where conditions are locally warmer and drier.

False barley Facts

Name False barley
Scientific Name Hordeum murinum
Native Central Europe, North Africa, western Asia, and the Caucasus region. It has naturalized in North America, South America, Australia, and New Zealand
Common Names False barley, Mouse barley, Wall barley, Wild barley, Farmer’s foxtail, bulbous barley, way barley, Smooth barley, Hare barley, way bentgrass, foxtail
Name in Other Languages Albanian: Elb, elbi i egër
Arabic: Sunbulet el fâr
Brazil: Erva-de-espiga
Bulgarian: Mishi echemik (миши ечемик)
Catalan: Margall bord, espigadella, espigatrencat, pèl de ca, cua de rata
Croatian: Stoklasa
Czech: Je, ječmen myší
Danish:  Gold byg
Dutch:  Kruipertje, muizengerst
English:  False barley, Mouse barley, Wall barley, Wild barley, Farmer’s foxtail, bulbous barley, way barley, Smooth barley, Hare barley, way bentgrass
Finnish: Hiirenohra
French: Orge des murs, Orge des rats, Orge queue de souris, Orge queue-de-rat, Orge des souris, Way barley
German: Hundsgerste, Mäusegerste
Greek: Krithí i mýouros (Κριθή η μύουρος), agriokrítharo (αγριοκρίθαρο)
Hungarian:  Egérárpa
Italian: Erba codola, Forasacco, Grano canino, Orzo dei muri, Orzo des ratti, Orzo selvatico, erba spiga, Orzo murino
Japanese: Mugi kusa (ムギクサ) ko mugi (コムギ), mugi (ムギ), rai-mugi (ライムギ), ô-mugi (オオムギ)
Netherlands: Gerst, muizen, kruipertje
Norwegian: Musebygg
Persian:  جو وحشي 
Polish: Jęczmień płonny, jęczmień płony
Portuguese: Cevada-de-ponche-verde,  Cevada-dos-ratos, erva-de-espiga,  Cevadinha-das-Lebres
Romanian: Orzul șoarecilor
Russian:  Yachmen’ myshinnyy (Ячмень мышинный)  Iachmen’ myshinnyi, yachmen’ zayachiy (ячмень заячий)
Serbian: Divlji ječam (дивљи јечам), popino prase (попино прасе)
Slovak: Jačmeň myší
Slovene: Mišji ječmen
Spanish:  Cebadilla del campo, cebada ratonera, cebadilla, cola de zorro, espigadilla, cebada de ratones, cebadilla Silvestre, cola de ratim, pillanovias, pixaca, pizcanovias, spiguilla, Cebadilla ratonera
Swedish: Vildkorn, Hiirenohra, harkorn
Turkish:  Duvar arpası, pisipisi out
Ukrainian: yachminʹ myshachiy (ячмінь мишачій)
Plant Growth Habit Many branched, spreading, or nearly prostrate annual grass
Growing Climates Deserts, desert scrub, arid grassland, pastures, abandoned fields, open vegetation along roadsides, on the margins of cultivated fields, around buildings, irrigation ditches, vacant lots and lawns
Plant Size Grow to 30 cm in height and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long
Leaf Leaf Sheaths are open and glabrous; auricles are well-developed on most leaves and can be 1-2 mm. long. Leaf blades are smooth to hairy and 2 to 6 mm wide
Flowering season May through July
Flower Racemes are single, linear, or oblong, bilateral and 4-12 cm long. Rhachis is delicate at the nodes and is flattened. Spikelet packing is broadside to rhachis
Fruit Shape & Size Dry fruit – caryopsis
Fruit Color Brown
Propagation By Seed
Traditional Medicinal Use
  • A decoction of the plant has been used in the treatment of bladder ailments.
Precautions
  • The awns of mature plants can cause serious injury to the eyes, noses, and throats of grazing animals.

Plant description

False barley is a many branched, spreading, or nearly prostrate annual grass that normally grows about 30 cm in height and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long. The plant is found growing in Deserts, desert scrub, arid grassland, pastures, and abandoned fields, open vegetation along roadsides, on the margins of cultivated fields, around buildings, irrigation ditches, vacant lots and lawns. It is quite widespread and common. Leaf Sheaths are open and glabrous; auricles are well-developed on most leaves and can be 1-2 mm. long. Leaf blades are smooth to hairy and 2 to 6 mm wide. Ligules are barely 1 mm.

Inflorescence

Inflorescence is composed of racemes. Racemes are single, linear, or oblong, bilateral and 4-12 cm long. Rhachis is delicate at the nodes and is flattened. Spikelet packing is broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes are oblong and 3-3.5 mm long; falling with spikelet above. Fertile spikelets are sessile and 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets are pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels are oblong.

Spikelets

Companion sterile spikelets are well-developed containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 7-11 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes are subulate, 16-30 mm long, eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas are exerted from glumes, 7-11 mm long with 10-40 mm long awn. Spikelets comprise of 1 fertile florets without rhachilla extension. Spikelets are lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 7-12 mm long and deciduous with accessory branch structures.

Glume

Glumes are collateral, similar; gaping. Lower glume is subulate about 25-30 mm long, 1 length of upper glume. Lower glume margins ciliate.

Florets

Fertile lemma is lanceolate, 7-12 mm long, coriaceous, without keel and 5 -veined. Lemma surface is scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex is acuminate and awned. Principal lemma awn is 18-50 mm long overall and limb scabrous.

Fruits

Caryopsis is with adherent pericarp, ellipsoid, sulcate on hilar side and hairy at apex. Embryo is 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum is linear.

Culinary uses

  • Seed can be cooked and used as a piñole.
  • The seed can be ground into a flour and used as a cereal in making bread, porridge etc.

Other Facts

  • Weedy barley species is an important component of annual pastures.
  • This is useful for feeding grazing animals.
  • It is also the main source of forage for cattle production in areas with water deficits.

Management

In pasture, the grass should be cut or kept closely grazed down to prevent seeding and reduce injury to stock from the seed awns. Once the weed has flowered and set seed, even goats will not eat the seed heads. Maintaining a short but not overgrazed lawn has eliminated wall barley within 2 years. False barley does not compete well against a mixture of perennial ryegrass and white clover in the lawn.

References:

https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40881#null

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/hordeum_murinum.htm

https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=19314

https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hordeum+murinum

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=HOMU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hordeum_murinum

https://www.cal-ipc.org/plants/profile/horderum-murinum-profile/

http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Hordeum%20murinum

http://www.tn-grin.nat.tn/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=102928

https://accs.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/Hordeum_murinum_ssp_leporinum_BIO_HOMUL.pdf

http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-419414

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/HORMU

https://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Hare%20Barley.html

https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/27659

https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q161674

http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:405301-1

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