|False Barley Quick Facts|
|Scientific Name:||Hordeum murinum|
|Origin||Central Europe, North Africa, western Asia, and the Caucasus region|
|Shapes||Dry fruit - caryopsis|
Wall barley is an annual grass common in central, southern and eastern England, and scattered elsewhere. It is found on waste and rough ground and barish patches in rough grassland. It occurs on the margins of cultivated fields. Distribution is related both to the availability of ruderal habitats and to climate. Frequency decreases with increasing rainfall combined with decreasing temperatures, although, it can cope with greater rainfall if temperatures are higher. In ruderal situations it spreads further into cooler wetter regions by taking advantage of features such as the base walls where conditions are locally warmer and drier.
False barley Facts
|Scientific Name||Hordeum murinum|
|Native||Central Europe, North Africa, western Asia, and the Caucasus region. It has naturalized in North America, South America, Australia, and New Zealand|
|Common Names||False barley, Mouse barley, Wall barley, Wild barley, Farmer’s foxtail, bulbous barley, way barley, Smooth barley, Hare barley, way bentgrass, foxtail|
|Name in Other Languages||Albanian: Elb, elbi i egër
Arabic: Sunbulet el fâr
Bulgarian: Mishi echemik (миши ечемик)
Catalan: Margall bord, espigadella, espigatrencat, pèl de ca, cua de rata
Czech: Je, ječmen myší
Danish: Gold byg
Dutch: Kruipertje, muizengerst
English: False barley, Mouse barley, Wall barley, Wild barley, Farmer’s foxtail, bulbous barley, way barley, Smooth barley, Hare barley, way bentgrass
French: Orge des murs, Orge des rats, Orge queue de souris, Orge queue-de-rat, Orge des souris, Way barley
German: Hundsgerste, Mäusegerste
Greek: Krithí i mýouros (Κριθή η μύουρος), agriokrítharo (αγριοκρίθαρο)
Italian: Erba codola, Forasacco, Grano canino, Orzo dei muri, Orzo des ratti, Orzo selvatico, erba spiga, Orzo murino
Japanese: Mugi kusa (ムギクサ) ko mugi (コムギ), mugi (ムギ), rai-mugi (ライムギ), ô-mugi (オオムギ)
Netherlands: Gerst, muizen, kruipertje
Persian: جو وحشي
Polish: Jęczmień płonny, jęczmień płony
Portuguese: Cevada-de-ponche-verde, Cevada-dos-ratos, erva-de-espiga, Cevadinha-das-Lebres
Romanian: Orzul șoarecilor
Russian: Yachmen’ myshinnyy (Ячмень мышинный) Iachmen’ myshinnyi, yachmen’ zayachiy (ячмень заячий)
Serbian: Divlji ječam (дивљи јечам), popino prase (попино прасе)
Slovak: Jačmeň myší
Slovene: Mišji ječmen
Spanish: Cebadilla del campo, cebada ratonera, cebadilla, cola de zorro, espigadilla, cebada de ratones, cebadilla Silvestre, cola de ratim, pillanovias, pixaca, pizcanovias, spiguilla, Cebadilla ratonera
Swedish: Vildkorn, Hiirenohra, harkorn
Turkish: Duvar arpası, pisipisi out
Ukrainian: yachminʹ myshachiy (ячмінь мишачій)
|Plant Growth Habit||Many branched, spreading, or nearly prostrate annual grass|
|Growing Climates||Deserts, desert scrub, arid grassland, pastures, abandoned fields, open vegetation along roadsides, on the margins of cultivated fields, around buildings, irrigation ditches, vacant lots and lawns|
|Plant Size||Grow to 30 cm in height and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long|
|Leaf||Leaf Sheaths are open and glabrous; auricles are well-developed on most leaves and can be 1-2 mm. long. Leaf blades are smooth to hairy and 2 to 6 mm wide|
|Flowering season||May through July|
|Flower||Racemes are single, linear, or oblong, bilateral and 4-12 cm long. Rhachis is delicate at the nodes and is flattened. Spikelet packing is broadside to rhachis|
|Fruit Shape & Size||Dry fruit – caryopsis|
|Traditional Medicinal Use||
False barley is a many branched, spreading, or nearly prostrate annual grass that normally grows about 30 cm in height and its unbranched spikes can reach 10 cm long. The plant is found growing in Deserts, desert scrub, arid grassland, pastures, and abandoned fields, open vegetation along roadsides, on the margins of cultivated fields, around buildings, irrigation ditches, vacant lots and lawns. It is quite widespread and common. Leaf Sheaths are open and glabrous; auricles are well-developed on most leaves and can be 1-2 mm. long. Leaf blades are smooth to hairy and 2 to 6 mm wide. Ligules are barely 1 mm.
Inflorescence is composed of racemes. Racemes are single, linear, or oblong, bilateral and 4-12 cm long. Rhachis is delicate at the nodes and is flattened. Spikelet packing is broadside to rhachis. Rhachis internodes are oblong and 3-3.5 mm long; falling with spikelet above. Fertile spikelets are sessile and 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets are pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels are oblong.
Companion sterile spikelets are well-developed containing empty lemmas, or male; lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 7-11 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes are subulate, 16-30 mm long, eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas are exerted from glumes, 7-11 mm long with 10-40 mm long awn. Spikelets comprise of 1 fertile florets without rhachilla extension. Spikelets are lanceolate, dorsally compressed, 7-12 mm long and deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Glumes are collateral, similar; gaping. Lower glume is subulate about 25-30 mm long, 1 length of upper glume. Lower glume margins ciliate.
Fertile lemma is lanceolate, 7-12 mm long, coriaceous, without keel and 5 -veined. Lemma surface is scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex is acuminate and awned. Principal lemma awn is 18-50 mm long overall and limb scabrous.
Caryopsis is with adherent pericarp, ellipsoid, sulcate on hilar side and hairy at apex. Embryo is 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum is linear.
- Seed can be cooked and used as a piñole.
- The seed can be ground into a flour and used as a cereal in making bread, porridge etc.
- Weedy barley species is an important component of annual pastures.
- This is useful for feeding grazing animals.
- It is also the main source of forage for cattle production in areas with water deficits.
In pasture, the grass should be cut or kept closely grazed down to prevent seeding and reduce injury to stock from the seed awns. Once the weed has flowered and set seed, even goats will not eat the seed heads. Maintaining a short but not overgrazed lawn has eliminated wall barley within 2 years. False barley does not compete well against a mixture of perennial ryegrass and white clover in the lawn.