Eicosapentaenoic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid and shorthand name 20:5(n-3). It has trival name timndonic acid. EPA is a carboxylic acid in chemical structure with five cis double bonds and 20 carbon chain. The first double bond is placed at the third carbon from omega end. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid which acts as a precursor for thromboxane-3, prostaglandin-3 and leukotriene-5 eicosanoids. It is both a precursor and hydrolytic breakdown product of eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide. This fatty acid is found in flesh of cold water fish that includes herring, mackerel, halibut, tuna, cod liver, salmon, seal blubber and whale blubber.
It is taken by mouth for some heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, treat heart attacks and lowers the levels of blood fats known as triglycerides in people having very high levels. It is also useful for mental problems such as personality disorder, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimer’s disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It prevents loss of vision which occurs in old people, asthma, psoriasis, diabetes and cystic fibrosis. It is also helpful for prostate cancer, lung cancer and body weight in people with cancer. It lowers symptoms of menopause and high blood pressure during high risk pregnancies.
|Food name||Weight (g)||Eicosapentaenoic acid (g)|
|Fish oil, menhaden||13.6||1.791|
|Fish, herring, Pacific, cooked, dry heat||144||1.788|
|Fish oil, salmon||13.6||1.771|
|Fish, mackerel, salted||80||1.295|
|Salmon, red (sockeye), smoked||108||0.977|
|Fish, sablefish, cooked, dry heat||85||0.737|
|Fish, trout, rainbow, wild, dry heat||143||0.669|
|Fish, halibut, greenland, dry heat||85||0.573|
|Fish, wolffish, Atlantic, cooked, dry heat||119||0.468|
|Crustaceans, crab, alaska king, moist heat||134||0.395|
|Crustaceans, shrimp, canned||128||0.375|
|Fish, tuna, fresh, bluefin, cooked, dry heat||85||0.309|
|Mollusks, oyster, eastern, moist heat||85||0.3|
|Mollusks, mussel, blue||150||0.282|
|Fish, carp, cooked, dry heat||85||0.259|
|Fish, tilefish, cooked, dry heat||150||0.258|
|Fish, pompano, florida, cooked, dry heat||88||0.197|
|Soup, shark fin||216||0.186|
Health Benefits of Eicosapentaenoic acid
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Children require omega-3 fatty acids for brain to form properly. Research has shown that fish oil might lower ADHD symptoms.
Study shows that fish oil lowers symptoms of depression. Other study shows that it might be a type of EPA called ethyl-EPA which lowers symptoms.
- Heart disease
Fish oil is found to be helpful for those having heart disease. It lowers the chances of developing heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil help lower triglycerides and blood pressure, reduce the risk of blood clots, improve the health of arteries and reduce the amount of arterial plaque, which narrows arteries, and causes heart disease. American Heart Association recommends consuming fatty fish twice a week. Fatty fish includes herring, salmon, sardines, lake trout and albacore tuna. People with heart disease require fish oil supplements in addition to add more fish to diet.
- Rheumatoid arthritis
Various small studies show that fish oil helps to lower symptoms and inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis. But it does not prevent joint damage from getting worse.
A study shows that EPA lowered number of hot flashes by 1.58 per day in menopausal women. It did not lowered severity of hot flashes.
- Menstrual pain
Fish oil lowers pain due to menstrual cramps when consumed on regular basis.
- Raynaud Syndrome
Study have shown that fish oil in high doses can make toes and fingers less sensitive to cold when people have Raynaud syndrome. High doses are recommended only under doctor’s supervision.
Small study shows that fish oil lowered joint pain and fatigue from lupus.
- Other conditions
EPA have positive effects on kidney and lung diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes, anorexia nervosa, Crohn’s disease, burns, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and early stages of colorectal cancer.
- EPA should not be used in a child, pregnant or breastfeeding woman.
- Fish oil increases the chances of bleeding, consult doctor before using EPA if one is on a blood-thinning medicine.
- Avoid intake of alcohol.
- It may cause side effects such as nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, belching, itching, skin rash, nosebleed, joint or back pain and muscle pain.