Though not as well-known as many other minerals, molybdenum is a key trace mineral that plays a role in numerous different body systems. Molybdenum is needed for at least seven body enzymes to function. For example, molybdenum is required for the enzyme sulfite oxidase to work in many of the organ systems of the body, especially the liver and brain. And molybdenum is a cofactor for an enzyme called xanthine oxidase, which helps convert hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid. While too much uric acid is associated with the painful condition known as gout, the body requires healthy amounts of uric acid.
In addition, because molybdenum is a cofactor of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, it probably plays a role in nervous system metabolism, specifically metabolism of the nervous system messaging molecules such as serotonin and melatonin. Molybdenum is also needed to form unique proteins called amidoxine reducing component proteins. Without molybdenum, the body cannot break down certain amino acids.
The total body content of molybdenum in the average adult is approximately 10 mg, with 60% in the skeleton and 20% in the liver. Molybdenum is an essential cofactor in several enzyme systems that are important for metabolism, detoxification, and excretion of potentially harmful compounds.
What foods offer Molybdenum in the diet?
Excellent sources of molybdenum include lentils, dried peas, lima beans, kidney beans, soybeans, black beans, pinto beans, garbanzo beans, oats, tomatoes, romaine lettuce, cucumbers, and celery. Very good sources of molybdenum include barley, eggs, carrots, bell peppers, and fennel. Good sources of molybdenum include yogurt, peanuts, sesame seeds, walnuts, green peas, almonds, and cod. Though it may be a little difficult to find in retail stores, molybdenum is sold online as a single-ingredient supplement. It is available in a variety of forms, including capsules, tablets, and liquid. Molybdenum may be combined with other trace minerals and may be included in daily multivitamin formulas.
|Food name||Weight||Molybdenum (µg)||DV%|
|Soy flour||100 g||180||400%|
|Red cabbage||100 g||120||266%|
|White beans||100 g||100||222%|
|Whole rice||100 g||80||177%|
|Green peas||100 g||70||155%|
|Green beans||100 g||43||95%|
|Whole-wheat bread||100 g||31||68%|
|Wheat germ||25 g||25||55%|
Health Benefits of Molybdenum
Discussed below are the health benefits offered by Molybdenum:
- Protect cells
Antioxidants assist cell protection and prevent cell accumulation for aging and other chronic conditions. It activates those enzymes in the body which has significant antioxidant role. In the body, these components react with free radicals which diminish cell function by destroying cells completely. Too much presence of free radicals in humans results severe chronic conditions such as cancer. Molybdenum has antioxidants which neutralize free radicals preventing from damaging healthy cells.
- Combat metabolic ailments
Metabolism is all chemical reactions which occur in human body. It produces energy required for energy maintaining cells or microorganisms alive. It is responsible for breakdown of molecules for obtain energy. Body relied on metabolism for formation of energy. The chemical element has exemplary metabolic interaction properties. Chemical and metallic tendencies of Molybdenum acts as organic catalyst which encourages chain reactions. It helps to produce energy. The process of oxygen transfers promote to great extent due to chain reactions. The enzymes in body contain molybdenum. Sulfide oxidase is the most important one. It has a significant metabolic role in the body. It is due to metallic or chemical characteristics of trace mineral.
- Prevent cancer
Cancer affects cells that are basic building blocks of the body. Typically, body forms new cells and needs to replace old and damaged cells. The change in this cycle is a sign of cancer. At these times, new cells develop when body does not require them. The old and damaged cells live for long time. Molybdenum is a trace mineral which is an essential component found in soil preventing cancer growth agents called nitrosamines and green foods. Study was conducted for determining various causes of cancer types showed that insufficient level of molybdenum in soil is the major cause for cancer. Considered that in the absence of molybdenum in soil affect plant growth. Nitrosamine is an enzyme found in plants which grows abundantly if molybdenum is not sufficient. It promotes nitrosamine cells development. Other study shows molybdenum positively correlates when comes to female mortality associated to pancreatic and esophageal cancer.
- Remove waste
Elimination of waste or excretory system is a set of organs eliminating waste products from the body. The cells in body break down proteins, they produce waste including urea. It is a chemical compound which contains nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. As cells disintegrate carbohydrates, they produce water or carbon dioxide as waste products. There are various systems in body which are responsible for excretion. Kidneys are regarded as the most essential ones. So when kidneys or other organs to perform effective functions, waste products keeps building up in the body. Unhealthy activities to endanger human life.
Molybdenum activates urinary system which assists in elimination of urea, water and other waste products from the body in form of urine. Literally, it promotes other excretory organs such as pores and skin to eliminate unwanted waste in form of sweat. It excellently removes nitrogen waste from body through formation of uric acid. It is responsible to metabolize drugs in system. This assist body to utilize all useful elements by pushing out unwanted compounds in form of urine.
- Prevent anemia
Anemia is the condition where blood contains inadequate amount of red blood cells. Usually, it is an inappropriate proportion of hemoglobin available in red blood cells. Hemoglobin is a protein rich in iron responsible for red color of blood. Iron rich protein supports red blood cells in delivering oxygen from lungs to other body parts. Ill effects of anemia include weakness and tiredness. It shows other symptoms such as dizziness, shortness of breath and headaches.
Molybdenum helps this condition by supporting immune system. It promotes immune system to combat this disease. If left untreated, it leads to formation of other autoimmune diseases by disrupting body’s ability to counteract bacteria and toxins. It mobilizes iron found in human system. Anemia is a common ailment marked by inadequate supply of healthy red blood cells which are crucial as they are needed to deliver oxygen to rest of the body. It interacts with vitamin B2 or riboflavin of the body to infuse hemoglobin and iron. This activity contributes to healthy development of enough red blood cells.
- Control inflammatory & autoimmune diseases
Autoimmune problems have effect on any body parts including nervous system, skin, heart, joints and tissues with digestive, respiratory and excretory systems. Autoimmune disease shows a typical sigh such as inflammation and infection. These symptoms accelerate redness, pain, high temperature and swelling. An autoimmune disease impacts on the type of condition. If sickness impacts joints, as in rheumatoid arthritis, it might experience loss of function, joint stiffness and pain. It affects thyroid, Grave’s sickness or thyroiditis, it is able to cause muscle aches, tiredness and weight loss. In the case of systemic sclerosis/scleroderma, vitiligo and systemic lupus erythematosus, it forms rashes and blisters. When something threatening or damaging attacks body, there is natural biological and automatic response to respond it. But to counteract these autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, minerals such as molybdenum is required for human body. Tetrathiomolybdate is a form of molybdenum which possesses four sulfur atoms. These components lower copper levels in body. It has been proven to be effective for treating fibrotic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. It restrain formation of pulmonary or liver fibrotic. Such restriction prevents liver damage from acetaminophen and lowers heart damage from doxorubicin which is an antibiotic.
- Treat asthmatic allergies
Asthma is a disease affecting airways responsible for delivering oxygen to and from lungs. Patients with this condition are regarded to be asthmatic. Cause of asthma is unclear because some people experience the disease but others don’t though living in same environment. Asthma is a result of some allergy triggered by any stimulant. Its causes include mold spores, pollen, dust mites, pet dander, common cold or cockroach waste. Molybdenum possesses detoxifying sulfites with ability to ease risks involved with sulfite triggered asthma.
Initial reaction of body against harmful chemicals is activated by an enzyme called sulfite oxidase. Molybdenum promotes production or discharge of sulfite oxidase. This activity lowers lethal chemical effects of germs when it interacts with body. This refers that when body does not have sufficient amounts of molybdenum, sulfite oxidase ceases for functioning properly.
It is also responsible for proper functioning of sulfite oxidase. Breaking down sulfite found in system is the basic goals. This mineral is able to transform sulfite into sulfate which isn’t toxic to the body anyway.
- Detoxifies body
Detoxification means purifying body from toxins. It is an effective treatment as an alternative to medicine. Diseases are caused due to the toxins buildup in the body. So excluding these toxins and keeping toxins away are the fundamental parts of detoxification process. Detoxification is found to be helpful for people with diabetes, hypertension, asthma, joint pain, migraines, coronary illness, low glucose levels, elevated cholesterol and emotional instability. Promote an intake of molybdenum to lower toxic and bacterial responses. These responses are the cause for inflammatory symptoms. Molybdenum helps to minimize adverse effects of these symptoms. This mineral has a major role in arranging aldehyde oxidase. Aldehyde oxidase is able to detoxify acetaldehyde that is discharged by liquor and yeast digestion.
Acetaldehyde is a harmful substance leading to formation of tumors especially liver and kidneys. It lowers Vitamin B level in the body. Add molybdenum to the diet for eliminating harmful substances found in drinks and food we consume.
- Cofactor for multiple enzymes
Molybdenum acts as a cofactor for various enzymes which speeds up vital compound changes. These changes are needed for well-known carbon, nitrogen cycles and sulfur of the body. Presence of molybdenum is required for enzymes including sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. Xanthine oxidase is found in liver in human body. When liver becomes subjected to damage or harm, Xanthine oxidase is discharged in blood. This contaminates blood stream. In excessive quantity, it points out severe liver problems. It helps to maintain level of xanthine oxidase.
Sulfite oxidase is associated to neurological health. Inadequate sulfite oxidase levels results extreme nervous system issues. This expands mental hindrances or constricted development of cerebrum. It is required for healthy formation of sulfite oxidase in the body.
- Offer nutrition
Sulfur is a component of colossal significance to well-being. Hence diet does not contain optimal level of sulfur amino acids. Sulfur assists body to eliminate various contaminants. Mineral promotes sulfur levels for preventing cancer formation and enhance cell reinforcement. Molybdenum has a significant role in healthy structuring of connective tissues. The basic function of Molybdenum sulfite oxidase is converting sulfite into sulfate. It supports liver detoxification. Cell reinforcement and tissue improvement are the two important functions of sulfur. Presence of molybdenum in the body promotes sulfur for achieving that in most efficient manner.
What are the intake recommendations?
The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences established Dietary Reference Intakes for molybdenum. The recommendations for infants under one year are adequate intake levels. Pregnant and lactating women should take in 50 mg per day. Men and women 19 years and older should take in 45 mcg per day, while teens between the ages of 14 and 18 years should take in 43 mcg per day. Children between the ages of 9 and 13 years should take in 34 mcg per day, while children between the ages of 4 and 8 years should take in 22 mcg per day. Children between the ages of one and three years should take in 17 mcg per day. Infants between the ages of 6 and 12 months should take in 3 mcg per day, while infants from birth to 6 months should take in 2 mcg per day.
There are also upper intake levels for molybdenum. Pregnant or lactating women over 19 years should not take in more than 2,000 mcg per day, while pregnant or lactating women under 19 years should not take in more than 1,700 mcg per day. Men and women who are 19 years or older should take in no more than 2,000 mcg per day, while teens between the ages of 14 and 18 should take in no more than 1,700 mcg per day. Children between the ages of 9 and 13 years should take in no more than 1,000 mcg per day, while children between the ages of 4 and 8 should take in no more than 600 mcg per day. Children between the ages of one and three years should take in no more than 300 mcg per day. There is no established limit for infants under 12 months.
What happens with too much or too little consumption of Molybdenum?
Because of molybdenum’s widespread availability in the human diet, a deficiency is somewhat unlikely. However, people receiving intravenous (IV) feedings for several months are at risk. In contrast, molybdenum is fairly nontoxic. Molybdenum is involved in the breakdown of purines to a waste product called uric acid. Uric acid is removed from the body in urine, and theoretically there is a greater risk for developing kidney stones formed by excessive uric acid. Excessive uric acid production may also increase the risk of developing gout, which is characterized by recurrent inflammation of joint regions and deposition of uric acid in those areas.