Myricetin belongs to the member of flavonoid class of polyphenolic compounds having antioxidant properties. It could be obtained from vegetables, nuts, fruits, tea, berries and red wine. Structurally, Myricetin is similar to fisetin, quercetin and luteolin. It is produced from parent compound taxifolin through (+)-dihydromyricetin intermediate and could be further prepared for forming laricitrin and then syringetin. Myricitrin is a flavonoid extracted from fruit, bark and leaves of Chinese bayberry and is used as flavor modifier in dairy products, snack foods and beverages. It is converted to myricetin by intestinal microflora that occurs in plants and consumed in vegetables, fruits and beverages. The ability of myricetin and myricitrin was evaluated in apprehension of worldwide marketing of food products that contain myricitrin. It is also available as dietary supplement in form of pills and should be taken with water being water soluble. It is a yellow-beige crystalline powder in pure form. Usually, it occurs in form of glycosides.
Health Benefits of Myricetin
In several health benefits of Myricetin, it contains anti-cancer properties as well. Study shows that piceatannol and myricetin promoted apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Apoptosis is the death of cells which occurs as normal and controlled part of growth of organism. Other studies show that myricetin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced angiogenesis and also suppress wrinkles formation. On research being conducted on myricetin, it shows that myricetin lowers incidence of tumor. Myricetin supplements shows that liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and TBARS are the by-products of lipid perioxidation. Let’s take a view on health benefits of myricetin:
- Antioxidant activity
Reactive oxygen species and free radicals which form in body could harm tissues, cells and bodies. Like other flavonoids, myricetin possess antioxidant properties. Test tube study shows that antioxidant activity of myricetin promotes in presence of ascorbic acid and iron.
- Lower inflammation
Myricetin helps to prevent human platelets from clotting that becomes an important step in inflammation process. It suppresses protein kinases which act as molecules signaling during inflammation. Myricetin is a naturally occurring anti-inflammatory molecule that serves as a best solution for chronic inflammatory problems such as atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. It also inhibits snake venom PLA2 that causes pain and inflammation.
- Cancer prevention
In normal cells, DNA has special genes known as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes which control division of cells and prevention of cancer. When DNA in normal cells go through oxidative damage and mutation in these genes results in cancer. Myricetin is an antioxidant that protects DNA from oxidative damage and lowers the chances of cancer. With cisplatin, myricetin inhibits growth of cancer cells and increased cell death in comparison to cisplatin by itself.
- Assist diabetes
Myricetin in rats lower high blood sugar by 50% treated within a couple of days. It increases uptake of glucose by muscles and other cells. The study conducted on 42 diabetic patients shows that supplement of Blueberin with 50 mg of myricetin lowers blood glucose in comparison to control group.
- Brain function
Alzheimer’s disease is related with enhanced phosphorylation of tau proteins. It lowers this phosphorylation and slows development of Alzheimer’s disease. It blocks β-amyloid aggregates formation which is related with Alzheimer’s disease. It lowers glutamate. Excessive glutamate is related with chronic brain disorders. It improves spatial learning in mice. It promotes activity of GABAA receptors which promotes mood, enhances deep sleep and relieves anxiety.
- Healthy heart
As the blood returns to tissues after lack of oxygen, it could cause oxidative damage or inflammation to issue which is called reperfusion injury. Myricetin prevents reperfusion injury by inhibiting activation of STAT-1.The treatment with myricetin caused 27% low in cholesterol deposition in blood vessels in guinea pigs. It also lowered oxidative damage and high blood pressure in rats. It lowers heart rate and reduces sodium in urine. In rats, it lower toxicity induced by isoproterenol showing potential of myricetin for treating heart attack.
- Healthy weight
Myricetin also inhibit formation of fat storing cells. It controls deposition of fat and obesity caused by diets rich in fats and carbohydrates.
- Anti-microbial activity
Myricetin promotes CI-secretions in tissue of respiratory tract. It thins mucus in cystic fibrosis patients and assists in cilia movement. Trachea cleanup prevents virus and bacterial infection in cystic fibrosis patients. It suppresses enzyme reverse transcriptase in HIV which is imperative for virus replication.
- Skin protection
Myricetin inhibits Fyn which causes skin cancer in presence of UV rays. It suppress RAF kinase enzyme that is responsible for formation of wrinkles in skin. Myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside in cells promotes fibroblast migration to wound site. It lowers healing time.
- Healthy eyesight
Cataracts have become common eyesight problems in elders. Oxidative stress and diabetes helps formation of cataracts. With its antioxidant and glucose balancing properties, it prevents formation of cataracts in rats. It protects retinal cells. Their anti-inflammatory property helps to provide relief from macular oedema.
- Strong bones
Myricetin helps to promote maturation of osteoblasts. It helps to promote bone mass and protects bone cells from oxidative injuries in diabetes.
- Thyroid health
Myricetin enhance uptake of iodine and iodine retention by thyroid cells. Increase in uptake of iodine lowers risk of goiter. Retention of iodine by thyroid cells makes myricetin useful in treatment of radioiodine for thyroid cancer.
Food Sources of Myricetin
- Black Currants
- Bok Choi
- Fava Beans
- Green Tea
- Green Chilis
- Red and white wine
- Red Onions
- Red Cabbage
- Swiss Chard
- Yellow Peppers